Loading…
This event has ended. View the official site or create your own event → Check it out
This event has ended. Create your own
View analytic

Sign up or log in to bookmark your favorites and sync them to your phone or calendar.

Monday, July 27
 

08:30

Registration & Coffee Reception
Join us for morning coffee and fresh pastries!

Monday July 27, 2015 08:30 - 09:00
(7th Floor) Registration Desk (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas St W Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:01

Workshop 1A: Data Collection & Network Analysis with @Netlytic & the iGraph R Package with Dr. Anatoliy Gruzd, Ryerson University, Canada
As social creatures, our online lives just like our offline lives are intertwined with others within a wide variety of social networks. Each retweet on Twitter, comment on a blog or link to a Youtube video explicitly or implicitly connects one online participant to another and contributes to the formation of various information and social networks. Once discovered, these networks can provide researchers with an effective mechanism for identifying and studying collaborative processes within any online community. However, collecting information about online networks using traditional methods such as surveys can be very time consuming and expensive. This workshop will explore automated ways to discover and analyze communication networks from social media data. As part of the workshop, participants will learn how to use Netlytic (http://netlytic.org), a cloud-based text and social networks analyzer to collect, analyze and visualize publicly available online conversations from social media websites such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. The workshop will also show how to export communication networks discovered by Netlytic in order to conduct Social Network Analysis (SNA) and create videos showing changes in networks over time using igraph, a popular SNA library in R.

Pre-Workshop Prep: 

  • Create an account for Netlytic (http://netlytic.org)
    • Installation: No installation is required; please make sure that you have a web browser installed on your laptop (Chrome or Firefox preferred)
  • Create a Twitter account for data collection (you can use an existing account)
  • Download and install Package R
    • https://cran.r-project.org/
    • once R is installed, please also install a library called “igraph”  by running the following command inside R:

install.packages("igraph")

  • Download and install FFmpeg - software to create an MP4 video
    • Note: To unpack the downloaded file, you can use  PeaZIP http://www.peazip.org/
    • Unpack and run the “ff-prompt” file to install FFmpeg.

    If you are a Mac user:

    -       Install/Update Xcode

    -       Download FFmpeg Binary from http://ffmpegmac.net

           -       Follow the download instructions from http://www.renevolution.com/how-to-install-ffmpeg-on-mac-os-x/

  • Create a new folder on your Desktop called “SMS15net” where you will keep all of the files related to this workshop. Within this folder, create the following subfolders: “img” and “net


Speakers
avatar for Anatoliy Gruzd

Anatoliy Gruzd

Director | Associate Professor, Ryerson University
Canada Research Chair in Social Media Data Stewardship, | Director-Social Media Lab http://SocialMediaLab.ca/ , Associate Professor-Ted Rogers School of Management at Ryerson University



Monday July 27, 2015 09:01 - 12:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:01

Workshop 1B: A Brave New #Journalism: Verifying User-Generated Content with Alicia Wanless, The SecDev Foundation

This half-day workshop delivers two modules from The SecDev Foundation training program, A Brave New Journalism, with the aim of introducing participants to investigative and verification techniques for using user-generated content in media.

Through activity-based instruction, participants engage with course material, applying knowledge shared through “teach-talk” directly in the workshop via hands-on activities.

Pre-Workshop Prep:


Speakers
avatar for Alicia Wanless

Alicia Wanless

Director of Communications, The SecDev Foundation
Alicia Wanless studies influence and propaganda in a digital age, applying her research to strategic communications campaigns. Alicia’s 15 years of professional experience cover a broad scope of skills that uniquely position her as a propagandist, including work as a security analyst and strategic communications architect. In addition to applied research, Alicia has created and delivered training on managing information in a digital age... Read More →


Monday July 27, 2015 09:01 - 12:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:01

Workshop 1C: Trace Interviews: Integrating social media trace data into qualitative research with Elizabeth Dubois, Joshua Melville, Devin Gaffney, & Alex Leavitt

This workshop aims to equip researchers with an understanding of how to benefit from the integration of trace data and visualizations of that data into the interview process. The workshop will review ways in which researchers have integrated trace data into qualitative methods in recent social media research before explaining the process of trace interviewing . Next, participants will be invited to conduct mini-trace interviews based on data collected in advance. This practical application will allow for a rich discussion of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges trace interviewing presents.

Trace interviewing (Dubois & Ford, 2014, in review) is an actor-centric method that employs visualizations of a user’s digital traces during the interview process. Trace interviews are useful for enhancing recall, validating trace data-generated results, addressing data joining problems and responding to ethical concerns that have surfaced in the current era of surveillance and big data. If the challenges of the method are successfully navigated, trace interviewing could allow researchers to respond creatively to new questions about the current, complex communication environment in which multiple social media tools are regularly used.

Trace interviews offer an opportunity to connect “big” and “small” data in ways which improve the researchers’ ability to interpret trace data and provide the creators of that data an opportunity to contribute to its interpretation. This means there are significant implications not only for the practice of qualitative methods but also for the ethics of big data and approaches to social media data analysis.

This workshop is relevant for individuals from various methodological backgrounds who are interested in mixed-methods approaches to social media research and will draw on examples from a wide range of topic areas such as journalism, politics, influencer identification, education and gaming.

Pre-Workshop Prep: 

  • Quick survey for workshop activity
  • Laptop and power cord 

Speakers
avatar for Elizabeth Dubois

Elizabeth Dubois

DPhil (PhD) candidate, Oxford Internet Institute
University of Oxford, United Kingdom
AL

Alex Leavitt

Annenberg School for Communication, University of Southern California, United States of America


Monday July 27, 2015 09:01 - 12:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

12:00

Lunch
Please join us for lunch.

Monday July 27, 2015 12:00 - 13:30
(7th Floor) TRS1-148 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

Workshop 2A: Working with NodeXL with Dr. Dhiraj Murthy, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK
Dhiraj Murthy, author of Twitter: Social Communication in the Twitter Age (2013), will be running this very basic introductory workshop on analysis of social media data using social network analysis. Dhiraj will introduce a range of techniques and tools for social network analysis of social media data, including Twitter and Facebook data. This is an introductory workshop which will be ideal if you’re just starting out and want to gain a grounding in the main tools and approaches for the analysis of social media networks. The software package NodeXL will be briefly introduced as a platform for social data gathering.

Pre-Workshop Prep:

 

Speakers
avatar for Dr. Dhiraj Murthy

Dr. Dhiraj Murthy

Reader of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London
Dhiraj Murthy’s current research explores social media, virtual organizations, digital ethnography, and big data quantitative analysis. His work on social networking technologies in virtual breeding grounds was funded by the National Science Foundation, Office of CyberInfrastructure. Dhiraj also has a book about Twitter, the first on the subject, is published by Polity Press. His work also uniquely explores the potential role of social... Read More →


Monday July 27, 2015 13:31 - 16:30
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

Workshop 2B: Selfies: Inter-faces and ‘me’-diated bodies with Katie Warfield, Crystal Abidin, Fiona Andreallo, Jocelyn Murtell, Carolina Cambre, Cristina Miguel, Fiona Whitington-Walsh, & Stefanie Duguay

The main objective of the session is to connect various global scholars to discuss the relationship between the self and selfhood, digital imaging practices and experiences, and the sharing of the self/selves visually through social media. Our aim is to invite a widening of the ontological aperture of methods and theories applied to the study of the body via social media–particularly the bodies of marginalized identities and marginalized groups.

  1. Inter-faces: authenticity, agency, and digital subjectivites will address the individual and intimate relationship between one’s body, image, and sharing.
  1. #Me-diated bodies: representation, intimacy, embodied cyborgs, and digital discourse theory will address the social forces that act upon and shape the relationship between body, imaging, and social media.

A young woman uploads a selfie to facebook. The photo of a celebrity becomes a viral meme. Two lovers Snapchat NSFW images to each other at the office. The regularity with which people represent themselves or are represented through digital visual imaging has beckoned researchers from divergent academic fields: art history to internet studies, visual culture to cognitive psychology. Amidst this academic intrigue, digital representations of the body have predominantly been addressed iconographically (in what categories and taxonomies of ways do we represent ourselves visually?) and ethically (what is an appropriate or correct representations of the self, versus and inappropriate or incorrect representation of the self?)

But what has not been explored (perhaps enough) are the ontological assumptions within the process of coding and categorizing bodies, as well as making ethical proclamation about them. Because digital images look so very much like photographs, they have been treated as texts and with such a treatment, images of the living experiential body become frozen and flattened through discourse. Selfies become nothing more than vanity rituals. Nude photos on snapchat are chastised as childish and inappropriate. Sending an image of a body is postage rather than the digital transmission of flesh and subjectivity.

But what if the discourse surrounding the ontology of digital bodies—both in academia and mass media—and therefore the theoretical models for studying, analysing and understanding social media are incomplete? What if digital images of the body are something different than simply a text, a photo, a communicative practice, or an object to be quantified? What if, as Donna Haraway ironically predicted in the Cyborg manifesto, there is no delineation between body and medium, flesh and technology? This rethinking would necessarily beg an integration of quantitative and qualitative methods and a rethinking of online identity and subjectivities.


Speakers
avatar for Crystal Abidin

Crystal Abidin

University of Western Australia, Australia
PhD Candidate, Anthropology & Sociology
avatar for Fiona Andreallo

Fiona Andreallo

Phd student, lecturer, tutor, course conveynor, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Fiona is a PhD candidate at the University of Technology in Sydney (UTS), Australia. She has been awarded an MA in in Photo-media digital design from the University of New South Wales, as well as a BFA in creative practice from the college formally known as COFA. Prior to undertaking her PhD, Fiona worked in a number of areas of digital media design including artistic, medical, and publishing fields in which she specialised in digital... Read More →
avatar for Stefanie Duguay

Stefanie Duguay

PhD Candidate, Queensland University of Technology
Stefanie is a PhD candidate in Digital Media Studies at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT). She holds an MSc in Social Science of the Internet from the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford and a BASc in sociology and psychology from the University of Lethbridge. Her research focuses on the everyday identity expressions and interactions of people with diverse sexual and gender identities on social media. She is... Read More →
avatar for Cristina Miguel

Cristina Miguel

PhD Student and Teaching Assistant, University of Leeds
avatar for Katie Warfield

Katie Warfield

Faculty, Kwantlen Polytechnic University
Director of the Visual Media Workshop @KwantlenU | Lead researcher of Making Selfies/Making Self | Faculty, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Surrey BC | Katie Warfield is faculty in the Department of Journalism and Communication at Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Surrey BC. She is director of the Visual Media workshop and lead researcher for the Making Selfies/Making Self Research Project, which explores the production and curation of... Read More →


Monday July 27, 2015 13:31 - 16:30
(7th Floor) TRS1-148 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

Workshop 2C: Qualitative Coding of Large Scale Textual Data: To Crowdsource or Not? with Dr. Bernie Hogan, a Research Fellow at the Oxford Internet Institute
Not all twitter data can be meaningfully mined through automation; even sentiment analysis is somewhat imperfect. At times qualitative coding ot Twitter data makes more sense. However, there are a number of ways to set up this workflow. Some are cheaper, some are faster and some are more reliable. In this workshop we will cover coding on Crowdflower using both crowdsourced labor [CSL] and skilled coders. This workshop will cover two different coding efforts on Oxford’s ‘Real Names’ project. The first was using CSL and the second using MSc students trained in qualitative work. We will discuss differences in cost, speed, logistics and strategies. We discuss potential sampling strategies to keep in cost, and time permitting, demonstrate how to pipe data from Netlytic directly into Crowdflower for coding.

Pre-Workshop Prep: 

  • Laptop and power cord

Speakers
DB

Dr Bernie Hogan

Dr Bernie Hogan is a Research Fellow at the Oxford Internet Institute, a department at the University of Oxford. His work sits in between social theory and methodological advances using big data. Concerning theory, Bernie’s work focuses on the ‘exhibitional approach’ and third party agents. That is, how do agents such as Facebook and Twitter mediate our relationships to others? To what extent to algorithms, design and politics... Read More →


Monday July 27, 2015 13:31 - 16:30
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

17:00

Reception at the Social Media Lab
Monday July 27, 2015 17:00 - 19:00
Social Media Lab @ Ted Rogers School of Management at Ryerson University 10 Dundas Street East, 10th Floor, Suite 1002
 
Tuesday, July 28
 

08:30

09:00

Conference Opening/Welcome Remarks
Speakers
avatar for Elizabeth Evans

Elizabeth Evans

Associate Dean; Associate Professor, Ted Rogers School of Management
avatar for Anatoliy Gruzd

Anatoliy Gruzd

Director | Associate Professor, Ryerson University
Canada Research Chair in Social Media Data Stewardship, | Director-Social Media Lab http://SocialMediaLab.ca/ , Associate Professor-Ted Rogers School of Management at Ryerson University
avatar for Jenna Jacobson

Jenna Jacobson

University Of Toronto
@jacobsonjenna


Tuesday July 28, 2015 09:00 - 09:20
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:20

Keynote: Dr. William H. Dutton
Legal and regulatory initiatives shaped by moral panics over social media are a microcosm of many general threats to the vitality of a free, open and global Internet. The belief is widespread that social media and related Internet developments are unstoppable and beyond the control of governments and regulators across the world. However, initiatives afoot to address increasingly vocal public support for ‘doing something’ about concerns ranging from cyber-bullying to privacy, are pushing politicians and regulators to bring traditional approaches to media regulation to bear on social media and the Internet. These initiatives are unlikely to accomplish their intended aims but could well undermine the vitality of social media and the larger ecology of the Internet. Several types of response are critical. First, academics and practionners need to come forward with a regulatory model that is purpose built for social media and related applications of the Internet. Secondly, educational efforts need to be prioritized to help children and others learn how to use social media in more ethical, safe and effective ways. Thirdly, social media need to be designed in ways that enable users to hold other users more socially accountable for their actions.

Speakers
avatar for Bill Dutton

Bill Dutton

Michigan State University
William H. Dutton is the Quello Professor of Media and Information Policy in the College of Communication Arts and Sciences at MSU, where he is Director of the Quello Center. Bill was the first Professor of Internet Studies at the University of Oxford where he was founding director of the Oxford Internet Institute, and a Fellow of Balliol College. He has recently edited the Oxford Handbook of Internet Studies (OUP 2013), four volumes on... Read More →


Tuesday July 28, 2015 09:20 - 10:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:15

Coffee Break
Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:15 - 10:30
(7th Floor) TRS1-148 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:30

Session 1A: Identity, Self and Impression Management
"The Mutual Influence between Social Network Site Use and Perceived Social Capital"
by Yu Guo, Yiwei Li, and Naoya Ito

"The next best thing? Managing impressions on Tinder"
by Janelle Ward

"Facebook’s Affordances, Visible Culture, and Anti-Anonymity"
by Angela Cirucci

"Assessing Personality using Demographic Information from Social Media Data"
by Ashish Kumar Tripathi, Shakhawat Hossain, Vivek Kumar Singh. and Pradeep Kumar Atrey

"Fake Twitter accounts: Profile characteristics obtained using an activity-based pattern detection approach"
by Supraja Gurajala, Joshua White, Brian Hudson, and Jeanna Matthews

Moderators
avatar for Dr. Chandana Unnithan

Dr. Chandana Unnithan

Faculty - Information Systems, Victoria University
I am a faculty member in the field of Information Systems Management with Victoria University, Australia (and also teach at Charles Darwin University). I teach IT Project management, Enterprise Business Applications, and Professional Practice. My current research focus is on social media analytics; Web 2.0 & 3.0; and women in ICT. I am an active part of the Action Team 6 Follow up Initiative, which aims to use spatial technologies for public... Read More →

Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:30 - 12:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:30

Session 1B:Teens/Young Adults
Moderators
avatar for Anabel Quan-Haase

Anabel Quan-Haase

Associate Professor, University of Western Ontario
Looking forward to hearing about novel methods in the study of social media, new trends, and social activism. I am also curious about interdisciplinary teams and how they work. Any success stories, best practices or failures?

Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:30 - 12:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:30

Session 1C:Technology
Moderators
avatar for Mohammad Ayish

Mohammad Ayish

Head of Mass Communication Dept., American University of Sharjah
Hi.. I am a media scholar based in the United Arab Emirates. I hold a doctoral degree from the University of Minnesota, Twin-cities (1986) in international communication and a Bachelor in Broadcast Journalism from the University of Missouri-Columbia (1979). My research interests include Arab satellite television, social media, media ethics and new media business models. I have four published books and over 70 articles and chapters in... Read More →

Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:30 - 12:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

! "Assessing Personality using Demographic Information from Social Media Data"
Authors: Ashish Kumar TripathiShakhawat HossainVivek Kumar Singh and Pradeep Kumar Atrey

Personality prediction has been widely studied in various fields including psychology and social media. The emergence of online social networks provides novel opportunities to obtain information about user behaviors, demographics and administer standardized surveys for studying such social and psychological phenomena in a data-driven manner. Using the data generated from a personality survey app on Facebook used by 228,343 users, this work undertakes a statistical validation of a frequently posited hypothesis: does a person's personality have any relation with their demographic information such as gender and date of birth (DOB)? Literature on astrology - though rarely scientifically tested - suggests that the one's personality is related to their sun sign which is derived from their DOB. Based on DOB we have categorized all users into 12 groups referred as 12 sun signs. We then examined the relationship between users' big five personality traits and their sun sign through chi-square test. Subsequently, the ordinal regression model is used to model this relationship. Our results suggest that there are certain personality traits which relate to DOB, making DOB a very quick indicator of one's personality where there exists a relationship. Interestingly, We also analyzed the impact of users' belief in sun signs and found that the degree of confidence increased for the users who believe in sun signs.


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

! "Facebook’s Affordances, Visible Culture, and Anti-Anonymity"
Authors: Angela Cirucci

In this paper, I outline and analyze a selection of Facebook’s affordances to argue that the site compels users to become as visible as possible, thus refusing their right to be anonymous. This promoted visible culture is primarily guided by two affordance categories: the “real you” policy and photos. I catalogue the related interface affordances for each category and speak with emerging adult users to better understand how frequent users interact with the space while attempting to maintain and broadcast the self. I find that users (1) do not question the “real you” policy because they view Facebook, like the Census or an application, as an “official” space and (2) value photos of corporeal selves to the point of ostracizing offline friends on the site when they have chosen “non-traditional” profile pictures.

Speakers
avatar for Angela M. Cirucci

Angela M. Cirucci

Assistant Professor, Kutztown University


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

! "Fake Twitter accounts: Profile characteristics obtained using an activity-based pattern detection approach"
Authors: Supraja Gurajala, Joshua White, Brian Hudson and Jeanna Matthews.

In online social networks (OSNs), the audience size commanded by an organization or an individual is a critical measure of that entity's popularity and this measure has important economic and/or political implications. Organizations can use information about their audience, such as age, location, etc to tailor their products or their message appropriately. But such tailoring can be biased by the presence of fake profiles on these networks. In this study, analysis of 62 million publicly-available Twitter user profiles was conducted and a strategy to retroactively identify automatically-generated fake profiles was established. Using a pattern matching algorithm on screen-names with an analysis of Tweet update times, a highly-reliable sub-set of fake user accounts were identified. Analysis of profile creation times and URLs of these fake accounts revealed distinct behavior of the fake users relative to a ground truth data set. The combination of this scheme with established social graph analysis will allow for time-efficient detection of fake profiles in OSNs.

Speakers

Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

"The Mutual Influence between Social Network Site Use and Perceived Social Capital"
Authors: Yu Guo, Yiwei Li and Naoya Ito

Considering the potential mutual influence between social network site (SNS) use and perceived social capital, this study examined how individuals' social ties contributed to their SNS use. Data were collected from a sample of 998 loyal SNSs users. Different from previous research that frequently concentrated on the predicted effect of media use, this study treated SNS use as the outcome of perceived social capital by drawing insights from the social cognitive theory. Results of structural equation modeling demonstrated satisfactory model fit, supporting the role of perceived weak ties in predicting SNS use and highlighting the mediating role of efficacy beliefs in the effect.


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

"The next best thing? Managing impressions on Tinder"
Author: Janelle Ward

The desire to connect with other people for romantic or intimate purposes is an age-old activity. Mobile dating applications have exploded in popularity in recent years. As these applications become mainstream, so does the urgency to re-explore the issue of virtual self-presentation: how men and women present themselves to potential partners. The matchmaking mobile app Tinder has 50 million global users and 1.5 million users in the Netherlands as of October 2014. This paper presents the results of 20 semi-structured interviews with Tinder users in the Netherlands.

Speakers

Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

! "Are There Generational Differences? Social Media Use and Perceived Shared Reality"
Authors: Brian J. Bowe and Donghee Yvette Wohn

Are there generational differences in how social media influences our perceived reality of the world? Based on the survey results of a 1,060 adults in the U.S., this article examines generational differences between so-called “digital natives” — millennial students who have grown up using information communication technologies — and earlier generations, who have adopted social media tools later in life. We examined both traditional and social media usage patterns to see if social media use plays a role in perceived shared reality—how people are influenced by their network. The results suggest that the two generations differ in terms of how different facets of social media use are correlated with their perception of shared reality. However, certain uses of social media, such as clicking links provided by social media contacts, contribute to perceived shared reality both for younger and older people.

Speakers
avatar for Brian J. Bowe

Brian J. Bowe

Assistant Professor, Western Washington University
Brian J. Bowe is an assistant professor of journalism at Western Washington University. He earned his Ph.D. in Michigan State University’s Media and Information Studies program. He is the co-producer of the award-winning documentary film The Death of an Imam. Bowe’s research interests include framing and media representations of cultural groups, particularly Muslims. He also researches the use of social media for political organizing in... Read More →


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

"Audiencing ‘selfies’ on Facebook: Practices and interpretations"
Author: Yin-Han Wang

As social media, mobile internet, and smartphones gain ubiquity, taking selfies seem to have become a common photographic practice, particularly among young people. The high visibility of selfies posted on social media platforms such as Facebook and Instagram have resulted in the coining of new terms by the press – ‘relfie’, ‘healthie’, to name just a few, to describe variations of selfies. Yet mainstream news tends to fixate on extraordinary cases of celebrity and micro-celebrity selfies, and frames the practice from a polarized pathological perspective, linking it to either lack of confidence or narcissism. Such focus overlooks the everyday aspect of selfie: how do ordinary youth produce and interpret selfies in the context of mediated communication on social networking sites? 

Objective: 
The ways selfies are received by an audience may differ drastically from the author’s intent. Audiences view the selfies in the context of interpersonal communication, and may perhaps engage in negative social comparison (Feinstein et al., 2013), which may backfire against the author’s intent of managing a favorable impression (Goffman, 1959). This research explores this gap between author intent of posting selfies and audience reception of seeing selfies via studying the Facebook selfie-sharing practices of college students.

Methods: 
This research employs a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to address the following research questions. First, how do college students practice self-portraiture on Facebook as a form of visual communication? Are there gender differences in their practices? A survey was administered to 800 Taiwanese college students who are active users of Facebook. Second, how do college students interpret their friends’ selfies posted on Facebook? Qualitative in-depth interviews are being conducted to learn about attitudes towards selfie-as-status-update.

Results: 
Preliminary findings from the quantitative survey indicate that taking selfies is predominantly a female practice, with around 50% of the female respondents reporting to take selfies on a weekly basis. However, all respondents reported to be more reserved in posting their selfies on Facebook as a status update – only around 5% reported to post on a weekly basis. Interestingly, even though male respondents were significantly less likely to take selfies, they were significantly more likely to report to enjoy seeing selfies, and think that seeing selfies helps increase understanding toward that person. Regarding social comparison upon seeing friends’ selfies, respondents were more likely to compare themselves to a friend of the same sex, as opposed to comparing to a friend of the opposite sex (50% vs. 15%).

Preliminary results from the qualitative interviews reveal differential acceptance of selfies-status-update, depending on the nature of the photographs. Posting selfies taken with friends were socially acceptable and encouraged, while posting ‘solo’ selfie requires more caution. ‘Solo’ selfie (i.e. selfie taken alone) is socially acceptable as long as it contains contextual clues that communicate some activities/updates of the subject to the viewer. However, if the solo selfie focuses exclusively on the subject without giving actual ‘updates’, or if the selfie posted is irrelevant to the verbal status update, these are then perceived as self-centred and disliked by the viewer. Nevertheless, over-sharing of selfies on its own is unlikely to affect the viewer’s perception of their friendship. The evaluation of friendship still largely depends on two-way interaction between the subject and the viewer, rather than on the mediated quasi-interaction (Thompson, 1995) of viewing status updates.

Future Work: 
A cluster analysis will be performed to classify survey respondents into several prototypes based on their photo- and selfie-sharing behaviors on Facebook. Interview results will be analyzed in greater depth. Together, findings shall paint a fuller picture of the role that selfies play in ordinary young people’s everyday communication on Facebook.

References:
Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co.

Feinstein, B. A., Hershenberg, R., Bhatia, V., Latack, J. A., Meuwly, N., & Davila, J. (2013). Negative social comparison on Facebook and depressive symptoms: Rumination as a mechanism. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 2(3), 161-170. 

Thompson, J. (1995).The media and modernity. Cambridge: Blackwell

Speakers

Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

"Follow-up communication 2.0. The role of social media in interpersonal conversations among young adults"
Authors: Veronika Karnowski and Anna Sophie Kümpel

The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of topics encountered in social media in young adults’ interpersonal conversations. Hence, we pose the following research questions: (1) Do young adults talk about topics they have encountered in social media? (2) What is the content of these conversations? (3) Do sociodemographic variables, personality traits and perceived usage and gratifications of social media moderate frequency and content of these conversations?

Speakers
avatar for Veronika Karnowski

Veronika Karnowski

Ludwig-Maximilians-U Munich
avatar for Anna Sophie Kümpel

Anna Sophie Kümpel

PhD Student, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

"Teenagers' Strategies of Re-framing Photos on Instagram"
Authors: Jou-Chun Su and Hsiao-Mei Wu

It can be observed that more and more people are using Instagram, especially teenagers. Instagram standardizes the photos with its own special filters that make them less personal. This study aimed at exploring how Taiwan teenagers react to this trend and what strategies they use to manipulate their photos. Study showed that instead of taking selfies, teenagers prefer to posting photos including friends and them. They would spend amounts of time manipulating photos by external apps to minimize, cut, apply different filters, add text or cute pictures, light, and combine photos into one photo. All of these actions are to transform original and palpable photos into stylish and distinguished works of art, suggesting that aesthetic is the core element that influence design process. Moreover, teenagers would imitate each other or public photo to evolve their photo editing, which indicates that they are shaping a new art world.


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

"Using social media to understand young citizens’ perceptions of landscapes facing energy-related change: the Mactaquac Dam, New Brunswick, and the Site C Dam proposal, British Columbia"
Authors: Yan Chen and Kate Sherren

Background: 

Although large-scale landscape changes such as hydroelectric dams will arguably affect younger generations the most, this demographic is often absent from traditional stakeholder engagement processes (Checkoway & Montoya, 2005). Much of the engagement around such issues that does occur within this demographic cohort - Generation Y who were born from early 1980s to early 2000s - happens online. Online is also where this generation documents its lifestyle and landscape preferences. This phenomenon makes social media sites a valuable source of secondary data to help proponents and decision-makers anticipate the impacts of proposals on this important but largely invisible demographic. 

Two active hydroelectric dam issues provide a useful set of cases. The Mactaquac dam, in New Brunswick, was built in the late 1960s and is facing an early end of its lifespan due to faulty construction. Three options are being considered for its future, refurbishment, decommissioning (but keeping the headpond), and removal (New Brunswick Power, n.d.). In northern British Columbia, the now-approved Site C dam on the Peace River will be a similar size and capacity. The opinion of young residents is largely unknown about both projects. 

Objective: 

There are two main objectives for this research: first, to understand young citizens’ landscape perception in areas facing energy proposals, specifically the visual aspects and use values of landscapes, and, second, how these might change under various scenarios at each site (Soini, Vaarala & Pouta, 2012). More specifically, this aims to identify the landscape elements that are appreciated most by young citizens, to find out how they use different types of landscape, and to understand various values of the landscape for them. 

Methods: 

Young people are active on social media sites and many social media platforms have become popular alternative space for modern public participation (Bertot, Jaeger & Grimes, 2010; Kushin & Yamamoto, 2010; Autry & Kelly, 2012; Juris, 2012; Tufekci & Wilson, 2012). Thus, it is possible to use data from social media to understand their landscape perceptions for both cases. In this study, photographic data is being collected by geographic location from Instagram. Those photos showing landscape in Mactaquac or the Site C areas will be coded into different theme categories, such as landscape elements, landscape values, and activities. The coding results will present an image of young citizens’ landscape perceptions and help to anticipate potential challenges to those perceptions presented by particular energy options. Also, text-based data collected by site-specific hashtags from Twitter, as a complementary part, will also help to understand young people’s opinion toward these two energy projects. 

Results: 

We have collected almost a year’s worth of images from each site, and have begun coding these. Preliminary insights will be discussed, along with challenges of extracting meaning from photos. 

Future Work: 

The data collection work will be finished by the end of October, 2015. The photo coding work is expected to be finished by December, whereupon semi-quantitative methods will be used for analysis. 

Speakers
YC

Yan Chen

Master of Environmental Studies Candidate, Dalhousie University


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

"How Effective is Targeted Internet Strategic Communication?: Auditing User Engagement with Social Media Advertising Using Eye-tracking Technology"
Authors: Jeremy Shtern and Ryan Payne

Background: 
Within communication and media studies there is intense interest in the relationship between social media users and advertising. Particularly, in regard to questions related to the normative and conceptual implications of the value chain wherein users populate social media platforms with personal data and user generated content that can then be aggregated, analyzed and ultimately used to serve users with advertising and other forms of strategic communication messages that are highly personalized and targeted, creating opportunities for marketers and revenue for social media firms in the process. Questions being asked include: what are the implications of targeted, personalized adds and strategic communication messages for user privacy and surveillance? Does social media use, by supplying data that creates this value for advertisers constitute a form of labour? Where should regulatory lines be drawn and what kinds of rules, if any, are required? A key and widely acknowledged gap in this emerging research area is the lack of empirical data on how users engage with targeted social media advertising and on the impact that such targeting has on user experience and behavior. 

Objective: 
Develop and pilot an audit methodology for evaluating user engagement with social media advertising and come up with some preliminary conclusions about how users engage differently with commercial and personal social media messages. 

Methods: 
We have developed an auditing methodology for evaluating patterns of user interaction with social media advertising messages and by understanding the views of the users, the targets themselves, on the accuracy and impact of targeted advertising. 
The audit makes use of eye tracking technology, allowing us to measure and record the changing focus, eye movements and other biometric indicators of internet users while they are engaged in their normal, daily social media use patterns. This technology allows us to provide empirical data in response to relevant research questions such as: How much of their attention do social media users give to advertising messages? To what extent do users engage differently with advertising content than non advertising content on social media platforms? Are social media users more likely to notice and give attention to advertising messages when they are highly and successfully targeted to at an issue of a high level of concern to the individual user? 
The eye tracking portion of the audit is complimented by follow-up debriefing interviews with participants, where we provide context to the biometric analysis, including questions about the extent to which participants feel that the advertising that appeared in their social media platforms during the audit was/was not logically and successfully targeted at them and about their reaction to the type of advertising they had been served with. 

Results: 
We will present the preliminary eye-tracking audit methodology as well as data based on our initial 20 (post-pilot phase) social media use audits. We will discuss and reflect on the ways in which eye-tracking research suggests that users engage with social media messages and also contextualize the eye-tracking data with survey and interview results. Though analysis and results are (as of submission in April 2015) still at a preliminary stage, we have already completed 10 social media use audits and expect to have preliminary analysis and conclusions to present by the summer. 

Future Work: 
Results will eventually be published in top tier academic journals, either as a stand alone piece or as a contribution to a piece involving results of multiple studies on social media users’ attitudes toward advertising. Results will also contribute to an in progress book project on the social media advertising industry, in particular around providing an empirical basis for theorization of the differences and overlaps between commercial and personal communication in social media. 

Speakers
JS

Jeremy Shtern

Ryerson University


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

"Selfie sticks – an online/offline entanglement of the networked image"
Author: Jessamy Perriam

Background: 

The increase of selfie stick use in public places since mid 2014, has sparked media commentary along with bans in museums, galleries and stadia. But outside of the media attention and bans, what does the selfie stick mean for the everyday networked photographer (someone who creates images primarily to share online)? An empirical offline and online study of selfie sticks tells a different story to one the media portrays. In winter 2014/5, a multi-modal experiment was conducted to see whether and how the selfie stick constituted an issue in both online and offline settings. The results of this experiment contribute to the work contained in the WIP paper. 

Objective: 

To examine the selfie stick as an object that is deeply entangled in the producer/consumer and online/offline process of the networked image - an image that exists and is available in many places online/offline and across devices. An additional objective is to provoke a discussion on multi-modal digital methods – is a multi modal approach a way to triangulate data (Hine,2015)? Or rather is it a way of gathering data from different aspects to tell a fuller story of a social media phenomenon (Buczkowski and Siles, 2014)? This also leads to the objective of exploring whether these methods, coupled with STS theories can adequately help us examine social media and digital technology phenomena. 

Methods: 

A multi modal qualitative study including: 
• A hashtag and network analysis of tweets including the hashtag #selfiestick 
• A visual analysis and typology of 3000+ Instagram images tagged with the hashtag #selfiestick 
• Field observations in the Tate Modern art gallery and the Westminster Bridge tourist precinct of London, UK to examine attitudes and behaviours towards the selfie stick. 
• A breaching experiment at the National Gallery, London . 

Results: 

The results from this study tend to indicate that a different narrative surrounding selfie sticks is being told by the mainstream media in comparison to the lived experience. 
Although the mainstream media tells a story of selfie sticks causing annoyance and held up as a symbol of the ultimate narcissistic act, the analysis of pictures taken with selfie sticks shows that those using it, are capturing everyday life with those they love to share with those they love (whether they be family, friends or pets). Instead of contributing to the perceived narcissistic ‘selfie’ culture, they have spawned and enabled a new ‘groupfie’ culture, one that tends to reflect care and attention to loved one, similar to that outlined by Miller with regard to our motivations for shopping (Miller, 1998). 

Future Work: 

This Work-In-Progress piece is intended to become a PhD chapter to explore the methodological opportunities to research the networked image throughout its offline and online life cycle. More broadly, the piece of work will explore technology’s role in the rise of the networked image, portraying slices of everyday, mundane life. 

References: 

Boczkowski, P. J & Siles, I. (2014). Steps toward cosmopolitanism in the study of media technologies: Integrating scholarship on production, consumption, materiality, and content. In Gillespie, T., Boczkowski, P.J., and Foot, K.A. (Eds.) Media technologies: Essays on communication, materiality, and society. (pp. 53–76). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 

Hine, C. (2015). Mixed Methods and Multimodal Research and Internet Technologies. In Hesse-Biber, S.N, and Johnson, R.B.(Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Multimethods and Mixed Methods Research Inquiry. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press. 

Miller, D. (1998). A theory of shopping. Oxford: Polity.

Speakers
avatar for Jessamy Perriam

Jessamy Perriam

PhD Candidate, Goldsmiths, University of London


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

"Social Media in Human-Robot-Interaction"
Authors: Frauke Zeller, David Harris Smith, Jacky Au Duong, Mager Alanna, Ebrahim Bagheri and Frank Rudzicz

This work-in-progress-paper presents the first results of a larger study investigating the role of social media in Human-Robot-Interaction. It draws on a large set of online communication data from Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram around an interdisciplinary art and science project - hitchBOT. This robot hitchhiked unaccompanied across Canada in July/August 2014 and kindles broad public and news media interest. The results presented show a so far under-researched dimension in the design of social robots, that is social media as additional communication tools in order to support the creation of trust, attachment, and to form a community around a robot.

Speakers
JA

Jacky Au Duong

School of Professional Communication (Ryerson University)
AM

Alanna Mager

Research Assistant, hitchBOT, Ryerson University
DS

David Smith

Assistant Professor, McMaster University
avatar for Frauke Zeller

Frauke Zeller

Assistant Professor, Ryerson University
I am the co-creator of hitchBOT!


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

"The Impact of Social Networking Apps On Malaysian Secondary School Students: Attitudes, Behaviours And Risks"
Authors: Siew Ming Thang, Adzuhaidah Taha, Noorizah Mohd Noor and Lay Shi Ng

Introduction 
Social networking (SN) has become part of the daily life of teenagers nowadays. They represent a pervasive technology that can result in unintended consequences, such as threats to privacy and changes in the relationship between public and private sphere. These concerns have led to a call for increase understanding of the attitudes and behaviors toward ‘‘privacy-affecting systems’ (Iachello & Hong, 2007, p. 100). This paper is also interested to find out the extent that teenagers in Malaysia understand the seriousness of privacy invasion when they are SN. Specifically it investigates: 

(1) How important is SN to Malaysian teenagers? 
(2) What role does it play in their social life?
(3)To what extent are they aware of the risks involved and how do they handle these risks?

Literature Review
Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework of this paper combines two media theories that is the ‘‘uses and gratifications’’ theory (Blumler & Katz, 1974; LaRose,Mastro, & Eastin 2001; Rosengren, Palmgreen, & Wenner, 1985) and the theory of ‘‘ritualized media use (Debatin, Lovejoy, Scripps, Horn & Hughes, 2008). These two media theories are used as the analytical background and framework to explain and contextualise the findings. 

Risks of SN
The risks discussed here are those investigated in this study. (1)Cyberbullying is described intentionally using digital media to communicate false, embarrassing, or hostile information about another person (O’Keefe & Clarke-Pearson, 2011). (2) Texting can also be used to bully or humiliate people by sending messages or uploading upsetting messages and images. (3) Unwanted online sexual solicitation is defined as “the act of encouraging someone to talk about sex, to do something sexual, or to share personal sexual information even when that person does not want to” (Ybarra, 2007). (4) Exposure to illegal content and privacy violation. 

Methods 
Research Instrument 
Three types of research instruments were used: 
1)A form that elicited students’ personal background information as well as their SN habits.
2)Open-ended questions to elicit students’ SN experiences. 
3)7 scenarios depicting situations involving the negative consequences of using SN Apps which include danger of sexual exposure (scenario 1), privacy violation such as online identity theft (scenarios 2) and hacking (scenario 3), online sexual solicitation (scenario 4), texting (scenario 5), illegal content (scenario 6) and cyberbullying (scenario 7). 

Ethical Consideration
It is now a standard requirement for researchers in Malaysia to obtain permission from the Ministry of Education before commencing research in schools. However due to a lack of time, it was decided it would be sufficient if permission could be obtained from school principal for the preliminary study. Since one of the researchers is a teacher at the School, permission was given with the provision of a letter from the University. The interviews were all conducted in the school premise and students were required to sign a letter of consent and assured of anonymity. Application to the Ministry of Education for permission to undertake the research project on a larger scale has been undertaken. 

Research Procedure 
The four students began by completing the form eliciting their personal background and SN habits. After that they were asked to give their views on the benefits and problems in using such sites and their reactions towards each scenario. 

Data Analysis 
The data were analysed for patterns and themes in line with the research questions and the conceptual framework. 

Results 
Background Information of Students 
This preliminary set of interview was conducted on Four Form 4 (16 years old) Malay female students from an elite, residential school. The interview which took 55 minutes was conducted in English and transcribed in verbatim. The students all obtained a minimum of six distinctions in the Secondary Three Assessment including in English. They come from upper middle class families with parents who are either professional or business personnel. All of them are active uses of the internet as well as SN (SN) sites which include Friendster, Myspace, Twitter, Facebook, Whatsapp, Ask fm, Wechat, and Instagram. 

Presentation and Discussion of Findings
1) How important is SN to Malaysian teenagers? 
The students are all active users of SN sites. On the whole they believe that SN enriches their lives and help them to be in touch with their friends and family members all the time. Despite their stressful and emotional experiences with SN they are not willing to give up using the SN and are prepared to face the negative consequences involved in SN. SN satisfies their needs according to the gratifications theory. It offers them diversion and entertainment, enable them to make online friends and also help them to learn more about themselves. Thus, it can be said that they are more exposed, more mature and wiser because of the experiences with SN which will enable them to handle the real world better when they leave school. This is important to these students as they live in the residential colleges and live a very sheltered life. 

(2) What role does it play in their social life?
The students are very aware of the risks involved in SN and though SN can be described as a ritual in their lives they do take every step to protect themselves against the risks posed by SN as well as to safeguard themselves against personal hurt that can arise from active participation. 

(3)To what extent are they aware of the risks involved and how do they handle them?
Like teenagers in western countries students in School A are aware of most of the risks involved in SN. They have also experienced the negative consequences of texting which has caused them a great deal of anxiety and stress. This has made them more cautious about what they write in the SN sites which actually educate them on the negative effects of texting as otherwise they may not be less aware of the negative consequences of texting (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell & Purcell, 2007). 

Acknowledgement:
This research project is funded by the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC).

References 
Blumler, J. G., & Katz, E. (Eds.). (1974). The uses of mass communication: current perspectives on gratifications research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Debatin, J., Lovejoy, P., Scripps, E.W., Horn, A., & Hughes, B.N. (2009). Facebook and online privacy: attitudes, behaviors, and unintended consequences. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 15(1), 83–108. 

Iachello, G. & Hong, J. (2007). End-user privacy in human–computer interaction. Foundations and Trends in Human–Computer Interaction, 1(1), 1–137.

LaRose, R., Mastro, D., & Eastin, M. S. (2001). Understanding internet usage: A social-cognitive approach to uses and gratifications. Social Science Computer Review, 19(4), 395–413.

Lenhart, A. (2007). Cyberbullying. Retrieved from: http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/Cyberbullying.aspx.

O’Keefe, G.S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents and families. Pediatrics. .127(4), 800-804. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/4/800.full

Rosengren, K. E., Palmgreen, P., &Wenner, L. A. (Eds.). (1985). Media gratification research:Current perspectives. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Ybarra, M.L., Espelage, D.L., & Mitchell, K.J. (2007). The co-occurrence of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization and perpetration: associations with psychosocial indicators. Journal of Adolescent Health. 41(S6), 31-41.


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:31

"Towards hyper-connected mobility through social networking apps: video- ethnography of patterns of uses"
Authors: Julien Figeac and Johann Chaulet

This proposal aims at presenting a study on the uses of social networking sites (SNS – i.e. Facebook, Snapchat) and micro-blogging apps (Twitter, Tumblr, etc.) on smartphones during ordinary journeys on public transport. In order to collect the appropriation of smartphones in various means of transport (subway, tramway, bus) in two French cities (Paris and Toulouse), a video-ethnography of utilisations was completed by a sample of 30 users under 35 years of age who recorded 42 hours of smartphone usage. 

This video protocol allows us to provide a detailed analysis of the appropriation of SNS apps by describing the temporal organization of uses. This research shows that users reproduce a similar pattern structured according to urban mobilities (which define short durations of use), technological design of apps (which displays notifications) and social relations (which induce social solicitations and commitments). In compliance with the new mobility paradigm (Urry, 2000; Sheller, Urry, 2006), this proposal highlights how urban settings frame these nomadic uses of SNS and can promote a contemporary form of “networked individualism” (Wellman, 2001) and hyper-connected digital sociability. 

Speakers
avatar for Johann Chaulet

Johann Chaulet

researcher, CNRS
avatar for Julien Figeac

Julien Figeac

CNRS Researcher, CNRS - National Center for Scientific Research
My research focuses on uses of ICT in situations of mobility. | | My work is distinguished by the development of a method of observation, video-ethnography, based on video recordings of the uses of smartphones in public settings. I developed this approach during my PhD by focusing on the appropriation of Mobile TV in order to follow the paradigm of the sociology of mobility. | | I expanded this research protocol by analyzing the... Read More →


Tuesday July 28, 2015 10:31 - 12:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

12:01

13:30

Panel 1A: Social Networks and Social Media in East Asia
Contributors: 
  • Barry Wellman, NetLab Network, University of Toronto
  • Wenhong Chen, School of Communication, University of Texas-Austin
  • Jeffrey Boase, Institute of Culture, Communication & Information Technology, University of Toronto Mississauga
  • Yuli Patrick Hsieh, RTI International, Evanston, IL
  •  Alice Renwen Zhang
  • Maggie Gan Chan, School of Journalism & Communication, Chinese University of Hong Kong

The main objectives of this panel are: 

1) To expand the knowledge of other conference participants about how social media and social networks are developing in East Asia; 

2) To demonstrate how changes in specific societies are acting in both similar and different ways, as they move to Asian forms of networked individualism;

3) To summarize some key findings from the forthcoming two issues of the American Behavioral Scientist, “Social Networks in East and South East Asia

Speakers
WC

Wenhong Chen

Department of Radio-Television-Film, Univeristy of Texas at Austin
avatar for Barry Wellman

Barry Wellman

NetLab Network, University of Toronto
I'm involved in studying Networked Individualism-how Torontonians incorporate digital media into their everyday social networks; and Networked Work and Research-how coworkers collaborate in multiple teams, often far-flung. I've co-authored the double-award winner Networked: The New Social Operating System,, and I've co-editing 2 journal issues about networks in East/SE Asia
avatar for Alice Renwen Zhang

Alice Renwen Zhang

MPhil Student, The Chinese University of Hong Kong


Tuesday July 28, 2015 13:30 - 14:30
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:30

Panel 1B: Participatory Media & Moral Panic in the Digital Era
Contributors: 
  • Dr. Nathalie Paton, PhD, Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of AixMarseille (France)

  • Dr. Glenn W. Muschert, PhD, Professor at the University of Miami, Ohio (USA)  

  • Dr. Morena Tartari, PhD, Lecturer in Sociology, Department FISPPA – Section of Sociology, University of Padua (Italy) 

  • Noreen van Elk, PhD student at Groningen University (Netherlands) and Research Assistant for the Institute for Peace and Theology in Hamburg (Germany) 

  • Dr. Aimee Rickman, PhD, Assistant Professor, Child and Family Sciences, California State University, Fresno (USA) 

  • Dr. Pierre Ratinaud Associate Professor, University of Toulouse, Jean Jaurès, LERASS Research Center (France)

Various current events, such as a vote on new legislation or the cultural practices of a socially deviant group, can awaken worries, fears and tensions generating "moral panic" (Cohen, 1972; Klocke, Muschert, 2010, 2013). With the advent of participatory media (i.e. social media that allow people to consume, produce and diffuse cultural content (Deuze 2006; Jenkins 2006; Livingstone 2013) and the access to public speech it provides, the public can now relay and fuel moral panic without going through legitimate institutions. By stating their political views via digital media arenas, the general public can take part in new forms of interpersonal mass communication (Baym, 1998) and express their political opinions within these social forums, unveiling their worries and making controversial claims through their personal social networks. This mediated participation in moral dilemmas plays an active role in determining public problems, prompting social movements, renewing social networks at the level of personal relationships, while renegotiating a number of democratic balances.

This panel is meant to tackle these recent transformations. The increasing mediatization of social relations, due to the expansion of participatory media in recent years, raises indeed a series of questions when participatory media is used to discuss moral dilemmas. We hope to broach queries such as: How do individuals generate and propagate their anger, fears or concerns beyond their local relational circles and fuel major international tensions within digital networks? How does media participation of various publics in political discussions on sites like Twitter or Facebook affect the interpersonal relationships of contributors, whether these ties be professional or with family and friends? How can contemporary technological devices overcome past difficulties in studying moral panic? Do recent methodological contributions related to new techniques of data collection (e.g. data mining, topic detection and tracking, etc.) in areas such as digital humanities allow one to revisit moral panic theories as they provide new opportunities of research?

This discussion is therefore an opportunity to underline how social media lead to renegotiating a number of democratic balances, including the relationship between private and public spheres as well as the role of publics in constituting collective dynamics, such as the formation of public problems. This updating of knowledge – combining theories of social problems, social networks, ICT and moral panics – establishes a multidisciplinary dialogue between different traditions of research.

Each contributor is meant to feed into this general topic from different angles in order to kick-start a discussion and emphasize the different manners in which this yet underdeveloped area of research can be developed in the years to come.
 

Speakers
avatar for Nathalie Paton

Nathalie Paton

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Marseille
My work focuses on the study of media participation in relationship to the formation of self, social groups or public arenas of debate within a range of topics including violence, e-health and activism, via methods typical of digital humanities, mainly online ethnography.
avatar for Aimee Rickman

Aimee Rickman

Assistant Professor, California State University, Fresno, United States of America
avatar for Morena Tartari

Morena Tartari

Lecturer, University of Padua
moral panic & media


Tuesday July 28, 2015 13:30 - 14:30
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:30

Panel 1C: Surveillance within and produced through social media
Contributors:
  • Christopher J. Schneider, Wilfred Laurier University

  • Ciara Bracken-Roche, Queen’s University Canada

  • Trevor Scott Milford, Carleton University

  • Harrison Smith, University of Toronto

  • Oliver Leistert, Universität Paderborn

  • Jason Pridmore, Erasmus University Rotterdam

  • Daniel Trottier, Erasmus University Rotterdam

As we enter the second decade of widespread and trans-contextual social media use, social practices have begun to adjust and anticipate the surveillance aspects that are both integral to and emerging from interaction on social media platforms. Of course it is not just ‘social’ practices that shape and are shaped by social media surveillance, but a number of other organizations and persons are harnessing and reinforcing the surveillance capabilities and aspects of social media. These include security and intelligence agencies, law enforcement agencies, marketers, activists, employers, journalists, publishers, identity management companies and even the social media platforms themselves. 

This panel begins to explore the connection between surveillance and social media. Rather than simply note that social media allows for increased or nuanced surveillance practices, the panel will focus on how surveillance as a concept might illuminate certain issues or concerns related to social media practices. This includes but is not limited to privacy issues, forms of exclusion, asymmetrical levels of transparency, identity and identification issues, information exposure and more. The panel will explore forms of lateral, participatory or collaborative surveillance, sousveillance and synoptic surveillance in papers that examine a variety of social and political contexts.

Speakers
avatar for Jason Pridmore

Jason Pridmore

Assistant Professor, Erasmus University
I study and teach on consumption, surveillance, social media, security and identity in the Media and Communication department at Erasmus University.


Tuesday July 28, 2015 13:30 - 14:30
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:30

Coffee Break
Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:30 - 14:45
(7th Floor) TRS1-148 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:45

Session 2A: Management & Marketing 1
Moderators
avatar for Alisa Agozzino

Alisa Agozzino

Assistant Professor of Public Relations, Ohio Northern University

Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:45 - 16:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:45

Session 2B:Theory
Moderators
avatar for Elizabeth Dubois

Elizabeth Dubois

DPhil (PhD) candidate, Oxford Internet Institute
University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:45 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:45

Session 2C: Journalism and News
Moderators
avatar for Bahareh R. Heravi

Bahareh R. Heravi

Research Group Leader, Insight News Lab, Insight Centre for Data Analytics, NUI Galway
Bahareh Heravi is a Research Fellow at Insight Centre for Data Analytics at NUI Galway (former DERI) and the head of Insight News Lab. Her research is focused on the nexus of data, technology and journalism. She is a pioneer of Data and Computational Journalism in Ireland. | Bahareh is the founder of Irish Times Data and Hacks/Hackers Dublin.

Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:45 - 16:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:45

Session 2D: Communities 1
Moderators
avatar for Anabel Quan-Haase

Anabel Quan-Haase

Associate Professor, University of Western Ontario
Looking forward to hearing about novel methods in the study of social media, new trends, and social activism. I am also curious about interdisciplinary teams and how they work. Any success stories, best practices or failures?

Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:45 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-109 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

! "Current Challenges in Social Media Management"
Authors: Kristian TørningZeshan Jaffari and Ravi Vatrapu

Social media management is an emerging field of academic research and organizational practice. It is concerned with the operational issues, managerial challenges, and comparative advantages that ensue from the adoption and use of social media platforms for organizational functions such as marketing and sales, customer support, product innovation etc. To investigate current social media managerial practices, we conducted a multiple case-study employing structured in-depth interviews with social media managers at some of the leading multi-national companies headquartered in Denmark (LEGO®, Mærsk®, PANDORA®, Novo Nordisk®, and Carlsberg®). Empirical findings uncover the prevailing perceptions about social media amongst the managers, typical managerial challenges tied directly to coordinating social media productions, and uncertainty about the return of investment on social media activities.

Speakers
avatar for Zeshan Jaffari

Zeshan Jaffari

COPENHAGEN BUSINESS SCHOOL
@ZeshanAJaffari
avatar for Ravi Vatrapu

Ravi Vatrapu

Professor, Copenhagen Business School


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

! "The (lack of) use of Facebook by small businesses"
Author: Chyng-Yang Jang

As social media continue their popularity, they have become an important part of today's business communication. Previous research on business uses of social media primarily focused on large enterprises. It is not clear how local small businesses use these online interactive platforms. This study attempts to address this issue. Using a commercial database, businesses with less than 50 employees were identified in a city in North Texas. Among them, 480 companies were randomly selected and searched on Facebook. Data were collected in both 2014 and 2015. The results show that only about 1/5 of local stores and service providers have business fan pages and more than half of those pages are in dormant state. The results of adoption rate, fan page life span, user activities, and their year-to-year changes are presented and discussed. Overall, Facebook is under-utilized by small businesses as a whole.

Speakers

Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Brands and Social Media Promotion, Conversation or Advertising Show ?"
Authors:  Karine Berthelot-Guiet

Brands are ubiquitous in social media for the few last years [2]. This presence in linked to different aims and accompanied by a string of commentaries. Mainly, the professional point of view has been focused on the idea that social media provide the possibility of conversation supposedly based on transparency, equality of places and proximity. Common word running through these professional discourses (interviews and papers) whenever it comes to social media marketing is the idea that these devices are supposed to enable brands to "speak directly" with "consumers" and to avoid communicating only with "classical" advertising, in this case called "paid media". 

This paper intends to question the common, professional, sense about brands on social media through the socio-semiotic and semio-linguistic analysis of some of the most popular brand pages on Facebook in USA and France and some of their homologues in each country. 

Speakers
avatar for Karine Berthelot-Guiet

Karine Berthelot-Guiet

Dean, CELSA Université Paris-Sorbonne
Professor in Communication sciences, working about advertising and brands as semiotic matrix, brands new communications especially on the web and social media.


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Relationship Cultivation through Social Media: An Analysis on Relational Use and Adoption of Social Media amongst Colombian Top Companies"
Author: Jennie Pena

With the rise of social media, companies have undergone major changes in the way they interact with publics. The fact that by 2014 there were 500 million daily tweets sent from Twitter, 1.2 billion likes on Instagram, and 100 hours of video uploaded every minute on YouTube, speaks of this phenomenon. This reality, coupled with the empowerment users acquire online, is radically changing the way businesses communicate, interact, and ultimately relate to their publics. 

If we analyze the digital landscape in Latin America, the figures show the importance that social media is gaining in the online behavior of this region. In Colombia, social media have a penetration rate of 96% among Internet users. Additionally, Colombia is in the top 10 countries on the planet in terms of time spent on social networks. It’s not surprise that in recent years, local companies have ventured into social media to promote their brands. However, little is known about the relational use and adoption of social media amongst Colombian companies in their efforts to build positive relationships with publics. 

The main objective of this study is to analyze the adoption and use of social media by Colombian companies, in their relational efforts to build mutually beneficial relationships with strategic publics. The study focuses on three online cultivation strategies found in the literature review: disclosure (Kelleher,2006), usefulness (Kent, Taylor, and White, 2003) and interactivity (Jo and Kim, 2003) and the cultivation strategies identified by the Hon, L. & Grunig, J. E. (1999): access, positivity, assurances and sharing of tasks.; the characteristics of social media as an innovation: advantage, complexity, compatibility (Rogers, 2003) ; and the public relations approach that companies embrace when establishing relationship with publics through social media, whether interpretative or behavioral (Grunig, 2009). 

The population examined consists of the 1,000 largest companies in Colombia, in terms of operating revenue, according to the Colombian Ministry of Industry and Commerce. The methods of data collection will be quantitative in nature, consisting of a survey to be administered to the organizations’ management, as well as a content analysis of the companies’ social media profiles. 

This research project aims to provide a useful framework for building positive relationships with publics through social media. Similarly, the study will provide valuable information to better understand the current state of social media diffusion in Colombia, so that companies are able to make better management decisions regarding the use of these media outlets. 

The literature review indicates that the adoption of social media has opened up new opportunities for businesses to understand the behavior of their audiences, thanks to its interactive nature. In this sense, it is necessary that organizations know how to potentiate such innovations to keep up with the communicational demands of the growing volume of digital users, while fostering long-term relationships that lead to mutual benefit of both organizations as their publics. 

Speakers
avatar for Jennie Pena

Jennie Pena

PhD candidate / Faculty, Universidad del Norte
@jenniepenae


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Role of Social Media in Enhancing Stakeholder Networks for Innovation in Ontario" [Cancelled]
Authors: Pawandeep Kaushik, Ataharul Chowdhury and Helen Hambly Odame

Background: There has been a growing importance for innovation in Local Food in order to mitigate the crisis of food shortage and food safety. Local food system includes short food chain that aims at ensuring socially and economically food production and consumption processes {Feagan, 2007 #119}. Innovation in local food depends on networks and interaction of various actors such as producers, consumers, advocator, policy makers and brokers. In recent years, there are number of initiatives to deploy social media for supporting communication and stakeholder interaction. However, there is little or anecdotal evidence on how stakeholder use social media to influence ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ ties within the network and enable local food innovation processes in Ontario. 

Objective: The study focuses on analysis of online social networks mediated through social media tools. Aim is to answer the questions, How local food stakeholders use social media tools to promote local food? What type of information do they share online? How do social media-enabled online networks support learning and knowledge creation among the stakeholders? The study is based on the frame work of "strong and weak ties" of the network of online communities of agri-food stakeholders. Weak ties are important for learning through networks with distant people and strong ties are helpful for collaboration for action and implementation of the knowledge to create change {Haythornthwaite, 2002 #5, Granovetter, 1983 #32}. 

Methods: I purposely selected four cases of social media channels (Face book and Twitter) of local agri-food stakeholder from Ontario; Foodland Ontario (Government organisation), Sustain Ontario (non profit organisation), Mucci farms (small and medium enterprise), Bailey's Local Food (local aggregator). I used Netlytic software {Gruzd, 2013 #62} to collect data during October-December, 2014- 2015 for Facebook and up to 1000 record for Twitter accounts. For analysis I am using UCINET and NETDRAW software. For compilation and analysis of data I used several criteria such as, topics of discussion, characteristics of the contacts (types, location, distance ) purpose (marketing or learning), intimacy of the tie/contact (frequency), relationship (#group members change, #of new staff and members posts, #of new comments, #of new likes, #of new events).

Results: The findings indicate that, the major contacts of Foodland Ontario are consumers, Sustain Ontario, Mucci farms and Bailey's local food have contacts with diverse interests e.g. consumers, brokers, farmers market organisations. The analysis of online communication behavior indicates that stakeholders discuss various topics such as health, recipes, organic, GMO, freshness and taste of local food , support for local produce and farmers. Foodland Ontario does not focus on the agri-food value chain (ego-centric network), where as sustain Ontario’s social media channels includes various actors of the whole value chain from producer to consumer (diverse and inclusive). Small organizations and individual farmers exhibited strong ties with the non-profit, local food market or aggregators. Their ties with the social media channels of government organization are not strong. 
Stakeholders need to be more strategic in using their social media channels. For instance, weak ties/contacts visit the social media accounts of the stakeholders to navigate the conversations and get new ideas. These loosely defined contacts with different interests may provide new impetus for strengthening local food system. 

Speakers
AC

Ataharul Chowdhury

University of Guelph
HH

Helen Hambly Odame

University of Guelph


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Data Economy: Reconstituting the Human"
Authors: Yasmin Ibrahim and Anotonios Kaniadakis

The dominant rhetoric of information society highlights the construction of a new type of humanity where the consciousness of the human mind is foregrounded through new forms of interactions and assemblages through data. This representation of the human through data shadows and data trails raises renewed challenges for human subjectivity; both in terms of its relationship with technology and with the governing institutions (i.e. the State, corporations, etc.) that constitute the new data economy. In this context, human subjects are amenable to multiple iterations in terms of governance and risks. More specifically, in existential terms, the data economy under which the human resides, could be instead understood as a false economy of free will where the discourses of empowerment are constantly mitigated by a lack of accountability in collecting data. ‘Data consciousness’ survives within the industry standards of ‘notice and consent’ while embedding hidden algorithms behind the screens.

Speakers
avatar for Yasmin Ibrahim

Yasmin Ibrahim

Reader, Queen Mary, University of London
Digial Humanities, Social media, Ethics and Social Implications of technology
avatar for Antonios Kaniadakis

Antonios Kaniadakis

Lecturer(Assistant Prof), Queen Mary, University of London



Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Ethos Typology on Facebook"
Author: Marilia Pereira

This research aims to study ethos on Facebook proposing for that a typology for some of the circulationg ethos in this social network, understood in this paper as a “discursive Institution” as argue Maingueneau (1997). For the first time, we approach the unethical ethos, observed in the circulation of the New Terms and Policies of Facebook’s use, valid from January 1st 2015. With this fourth kind of ethos, we also start a discussion about privacy negotiation between Facebook and its users, considering if the device tries to manage their profile in a double unethical way in order to improve the target advertising with the excuse of improving the experience.

Speakers
avatar for Marilia Pereira

Marilia Pereira

I am a researcher at PPGCOM ESPM in São Paulo Brazil. Now I am studying visibility, surveillance and self-censorship on Facebook. I will be presenting the WIP Paper "Shut up and like it: the spiral of silence on Facebook". Would be nice to hear your contribution about this issue. See you in London :)


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Just What Is Social in Social Media? An Actor-Network Critique of Twitter Agency and Assumptions"
Author: Jeffrey M Keefer

Background

While social media includes the applications that support the creation and exchange of user generated and participatory content (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010), the focus is commonly on the presentation or actions of users, the networks created on the platforms, and what we can do to promote our various WIIFMs (What’s In It For Me). It is less studied from the perspective of the networks themselves, especially through the influence and role of the non-human elements. Through this inverted perspective much may be learned, especially involving simple assumptions about the role of agency, namely the power to act (Latour, 2013). It is this social aspect of social media where actor-network theory can be most usefully employed, as the agency of things themselves may frequently be overlooked (Adams & Thompson, 2011) when rushing to understand the black box of assumptions present in social media research and practice.

Objective

This theoretical study will explore a seven-part framework (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy, & Silvestre, 2011) of social media—identity, conversations, sharing, presence, relationships, reputation, and groups—through the lens of actor-network theory (ANT). A traditional human-centered study commonly fails to acknowledge the complexity and levels of agency that get black boxed as a frozen network elements (Walsham, 1997, p. 468), resulting in an oversimplification and blurring of networkability.

Methods

This study utilizes actor-network theory, a theory or methodological approach that focuses on continuously generated networks, webs of relations, where power can reside within any actor (or to be simpler, any person, place, or thing) who continuously participates in the connections themselves (Callon, 1986; Latour, 2007; Law, 2008). Using ANT, we will partner with the elements in social media (Thompson & Adams, 2013) to better understand the “impacts of digital engagements on processes of knowledge-making and interacting” (Fenwick, 2014, p. 2) and seek to answer the question, “Just what is social in social media?” Given the cornucopia of networks from which to choose, Twitter, due to its seeming simplicity, will be the material-semiotic focus of this 7-part actor-network inquiry where the “hows” of network formation channel new perspectives of our social interactions.

Results

This work in process is ongoing, with explorations, examples, and network perspective of identity, conversations, sharing, presence, relationships, reputation, and groups through Twitter being the focus, via both human and non-human actors.

References

  • Adams, C. A., & Thompson, T. L. (2011). Interviewing objects: Including educational technologies as qualitative research participants. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 24(6), 733–750. doi:10.1080/09518398.2010.529849
  • Callon, M. (1986). Some elements of a sociology of translation: Domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St Brieuc Bay. In J. Law, Power, action and belief: A new sociology of knowledge (pp. 196–233). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Fenwick, T. (2014). Social media, professionalism and higher education: a sociomaterial consideration. Studies in Higher Education, 1–14. doi:10.1080/03075079.2014.942275
  • Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59–68. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003
  • Kietzmann, J. H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I. P., & Silvestre, B. S. (2011). Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Business Horizons, 54(3), 241–251. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.005
  • Latour, B. (2007). Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory (Clarendon Lectures in Management Studies), 1–312.
  • Latour, B. (2013). Biography of an inquiry: On a book about modes of existence. Social Studies of Science, 43(2), 287–301. doi:10.1177/0306312712470751
  • Law, J. (2008). Actor network theory and material semiotics. In B. S. Turner, The new Blackwell companion to social theory (3rd ed., pp. 141–158). Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Thompson, T. L., & Adams, C. (2013). Speaking with things: encoded researchers, social data, and other posthuman concoctions. Distinktion: Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory, 14(3), 342–361. doi:10.1080/1600910X.2013.838182
  • Walsham, G. (1997). Actor-network theory and is research: Current status and future prospects. In A. S. Lee, J. Liebenau, & J. I. DeGross, Information Systems and Qualitative Research (pp. 466–480). Boston, MA: Springer US. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-35309-8_23

Speakers
avatar for Jeffrey M. Keefer

Jeffrey M. Keefer

Director of Training & Knowledge Management (Urban Parks) + Educational Researcher + Professor, New York University & The Trust for Public Land
Director of Training & Knowledge Management (Urban Parks) + Educational Researcher + Professor = Actor-Network Theory + Liminality + Connected Learning


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Neoliberal Subjectivity: What Social Media Reveals"
Author: Matthew Flisfeder

Background: This paper addresses the Theories & Methods topic for the conference, and seeks to develop a theoretical model for studying, analyzing, and understanding social media and society. My paper begins by asking what social media reveals about subjectivization in the context of neoliberal capitalism. Referring to Michel Foucault’s (2008) reading of neoliberal subjectivity in his lectures on biopolitics, I question the extent to which the rational choice ethic of neoliberal entrepreneurialism produces subjectivity, as Foucault claims. Instead, using social media as an exemplar, I propose that the neoliberal conception of “human capital” involves a way of further reifying and commodifying all aspects of everyday life; and, furthermore, that social media has now become the space in which the subject advertises and brands the “Self” as an object. My analysis also challenges Hardt and Negri’s (2000) conception of biopolitical production in which, they claim, subjects produce, not objects, but subjects and subjectivities. Looking at social media, I argue instead that biopolitical production still involves a process whereby subjects produce objects to sell on the market, and that further to this, neoliberal subjects now produce primarily two objects: both labour power, and the Self as brand image. In my analysis, I propose, as well, that given what social media reveals about neoliberal forms of reification, Marxist categories of analysis, such as commodity fetishism, alienation, unpaid labour time, absolute and relative surplus value, etc., still provide a better representation of the forms of neoliberal exploitation than do concepts such as “human capital.” 

Objective: As a work in progress paper, I aim to develop my line of inquiry and hope to gather feedback from conference participants about possible directions that my research might take, particularly around methodology, as I am in the process of drafting grant proposals to fund this research. 
At stake in my analysis is the way that social media can be used to demonstrate the continued relevance of Marxist methods and concepts (particularly the labour theory of value, commodity fetishism, and the length of the working day) for critiquing of neoliberal capitalism, as well as a conception of subjectivity that expresses the emancipatory potentials of ideology critique. 

Methods: This paper looks primarily at Michel Foucault’s lectures on biopolitics and contrasts his approach with that of Marxist critical political economy. Social media is used as a case study for questioning the poignancy of Foucault’s conception of neoliberal subjectivity. This paper also uses a Lacanian psychoanalytic model as well as a semiotic approach to develop a conception of subjectivity that contrasts with Foucault’s. Both conceptions are assessed by showing how they each relate to social media, and how depending upon the notion of subjectivity used, social media can show either a conception of subjectivity supportive of neoliberalism, or one that demonstrates the existence of neoliberal forms of exploitation. 
Methods are largely interpretive, and include Marxist hermeneutics, post-structural criticism, semiotics, and psychoanalysis. 

Future Work: I’m currently in the proposal stage. Future work will involve gathering of data to test my hypothesis. 

References: 
Foucault, M. (2008). The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the College de France 1978-1979. (G. Burchell, trans.). M. Senellart (Ed.). New York: Picador. 
Hardt, M., & Negri, A. (2000). Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.

Speakers
avatar for Matthew Flisfeder

Matthew Flisfeder

Assistant Professor, Ryerson University
Dr. Flisfeder’s interdisciplinary research addresses questions about the intersection of media, ideology, and subjectivity, and examines the role of media and popular culture in reproducing ideological hegemony and in interpellating subjects compliant in the dominance of capitalism and neoliberalism. His research contributes to debates on media and society, ideologies of postmodern and consumer culture, subjectivity and identity, and... Read More →


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"The Big Value of Small Data: Decoding Semantic and Pragmatic Meanings in Social Media"
Authors: Joyce Lee, Shu-Fen Tseng and Shih-Yun Chen

Social media full of user opinions, experiences, wishes and complaints have been considered as being a gold mine for extracting business knowledge. However, the constant accumulation of user opinions and comments means that capturing insightful business knowledge is a challenging task. This is especially the case because business know-how in this context is seldom explicitly obvious, but rather, implicit in its nature as well as being unstructured and hence, difficult to interpret. Particularly, the quirky expressions created by the users make the messages hard to read for people who want to know “what is happening” and “what is going on” on the forums in relation to their business operations. We argue that in order to understand better what the web users say and mean, it is critically important that researchers and practitioners strive systematically to interpret both the semantic (meanings of words) and pragmatic (context of words) meanings of the content. Accordingly, this research involves unpacking the textual meaning of interactions in social media. For this research, we intend to tackle the challenges faced by individuals and organizations in trying to deal with “big data”, with the focus on the textual meaning and context of social media. 
This study focuses on the automobile industry. One statistical report has shown that there is an increasing need for car buyers and suppliers to engage with social media so as to keep abreast of consumer trends; however, many companies and manufacturers struggle with how to convert such big online data into useful business knowledge. In order to address this, we conduct network text analysis (Popping, 2000) based on the data collected from the most popular online discussion forum in Taiwan, Mobile01 (www.mobile01.com), from which 10 of the longest car-related discussions dated from February 2007 to September 2014 (approximately 14,000 posts) are collected for data analysis.The preliminary findings reveal that (1) a large amount of web slang containing irony and/or sarcasm has been created by the users and (2) these often connote sentimental meanings that are commonly adopted in the forum and hence, become generic terms. (3) This results in the creation of a collective opinion climate towards a product and/or service. Moreover, the outcomes demonstrate that whilst valuable business insights are concealed in such big reserves of data, benefits can accrue from small data derived from a text and network approach. This allows for exploration of the meanings contained in social media in a longitudinal manner, thus contributing a new perspective to studies in the field. 

For the future study, we intend to establish a framework for converting unstructured expressions into structured formats and hence, contribute to what other prior scholars have described as moving from being “data-rich” to “insight-rich” and responding effectively to the best of these insights.


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"The original social media: For a social history of Internet Relay Chat"
Author: Maxigas

There is a substantial body of scholarship on contemporary social networks and some on obsolete forms of social networking. Internet Relay Chat is in a unique position as one of the oldest social network which is at the same time in continous use since its inception in 1978, yet it received comparative little scholarly attention so far. The proposed article addresses this gap, taking a social history approach. The results are based on archival research and expert interviews. The article abstract is work in progress: accepted for publication in the Journal of Peer Production special issue on Alternative Internets. 

IRC is the original, federated, community run and managed social media of the Internet. In many ways it embodies the ideals of current reform proposals for “fixing the Internet”, yet it has been in continuous operation since a quarter of a century as the quintessential messaging application which originated the hashtag used by Twitter, Inc. for example. The protocol engendered a particular form of sociality based on collective enunciation which enabled the collaborative production of discourse, FLOSS software, open hardware, politically motivated sabotage, and most importantly online communities. 

The article offers a primer for the social history of IRC in three interrelated parts. First, an introduction to the genealogy of the protocol and the socialities it engendered with a brief outlook to the parallel evolution of other chat solutions. Second, a presentation of its techno-social features vis-a-vis current “walled gardens” (like Facebook, etc.). Third, an overview of contemporary usage by three social groups: the hackerspaces scene, Anonymous, and bot herders, typifying whitehat, greyhat and blackhat patterns. 

IRC is a protocol like HTTP, which allows administrators to run loosely coupled groups of servers associated with a single address (like irc://freenode.net/). Providers have been running such servers for the benefit of the community since decades without any attempts to monetise on them – in practice they did not even get the benefit of fame, remaining somewhat obscure. Yet, users counted in the millions benefited from the public services, while private servers allowed informal communities, activist groups and criminals to organise themselves without reliance on media monopolies. The radical simplicity of the protocol allowed for a marvellous complexity of common usage patterns to develop into a sophisticated subculture of its own. As the technical design lends itself to automation, “artificial stupidities” called bots can coexist with human users in harmony, or serve as foot soldiers in tribal wars. 

The article closes with a discussion of the reasons for IRC to have resisted recuperation (which is probably good) and mass adoption (which is probably bad), drawing the moral of the experience for contemporary debates on Internet freedom and social media and societal change. 

Speakers
avatar for Maxigas

Maxigas

Doctoral Candidate, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya / Internet Interdisciplinary Institute / Metatron Research Unit
The Industrial Revolution and its consequences have been a disaster for the human race.


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Doctors Without Borders – Social Media Crisis Communications and the Ebola Outbreak"
Author: Wayne Leung

Background: 

In March 2014 an Ebola epidemic was declared in Guinea. The outbreak would quickly spiral out of control and affect neighbouring countries, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) was on the ground and realized that the outbreak was unprecedented. Seeing that there were not enough resources being mobilized by local and international governments to effectively combat the epidemic, MSF undertook an aggressive communications campaign heavily relying on social media to raise awareness of the crisis and compel governments to help. 

In July 2014, Americans working overseas in Ebola-affected countries contracted the disease. News media started reporting heavily on Ebola but placed a disproportionate emphasis on the relatively low risk to populations in North America. A lack of information and public education about Ebola in North America meant that MSF faced a public backlash and legislators threatened to impose quarantine measures on returning aid workers that would unduly impede the ability of our staff to work in the field. 

Objective: 

Early on, MSF’s objective was to raise awareness of the epidemic and advocate for governments to dedicate more resources to stopping its spread. Social media was integral to the awareness and advocacy strategy. 

After the first cases of Ebola were diagnosed in the US, MSF had to react and focus on a secondary objective of countering misinformation and protecting the organization against negative accusations in the media and online. Social media monitoring tools were essential for capturing and analyzing the online discussion. 

Methods: 

- We undertook an aggressive campaign on Twitter/Facebook providing regular updates about our work in the field. 

- We engaged online outlets to cover the story, giving access to our frontline staff doctors for live online chats on programs such as Aljazeera’s AJ Stream and news websites including Global News, Canadian Press, and CBC News. 

- We created a suite of original multimedia content, for sharing across social media channels including photo slideshows, infographics, an interactive guide to our treatment facilities, online profiles of our doctors, and web videos including a video of an Ebola facility filmed by an aerial drone. 

- We held an “Ask Me Anything” on Reddit to directly engage our online audience. 

- We also webcast a public information town hall in Canada and engaged our online audience through discussion via our social media channels. 

Results: 

- Eventually governments did mobilize additional resources to combat Ebola. 

- We mitigated negative public sentiment toward our organization and negative online comments ceased. 

- Our social media monitoring indicated that monthly mentions of our organization’s name across the social web spiked throughout the crisis peaking at five times the baseline level. 

- Our web and social media analytics revealed that our Ebola-related content became some of our most widely-shared social media content. 

Future Work: 

- Assess the impact of our social media strategy throughout the course of the Ebola epidemic. 

- Use the lessons learned to inform our crisis communications plans in the future 

Speakers
avatar for Wayne Leung

Wayne Leung

Digital Communications Officer, Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Canada
Writer, Editor and Communications Professional; Torontonian, Traveller, Techie, Foodie, Humanitarian and devotee of the theatre & performing arts



Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Gender Disparities in Social Media Coverage of the 2012 Olympics"
Author: Adam Peruta

Background: 

The opportunities for female athletes have greatly increased since the passing of Title IX, yet media coverage of female athletes continues to lag behind. Although laws such as Title IX have been implemented to promote equity and female participation in sport, recent studies have shown that the institution of sport has given men a platform through which they sustain the ideology of male superiority (Messner 1993). Sport today is still dominated by men at nearly all levels, and the amount of coverage male athletes get in traditional media echoes this (Messner 2010). The increased participation of female athletes counter intuitively resulted in a decline of coverage in media. In 2010, Messner and Cooky, found that less than 2% of sports coverage on three top networks focused on women, and this was a decline from 2004. Studies of print media (Messner, Duncan & Jensen 1993) show similar results. What is less understood, however, is whether these disparities also apply to social media coverage.

Social media permeated every aspect of the 2012 London Olympics and played a critical role in the success of the broadcasting (Greyser and Kogan 2013). With our youngest generations of sports fans using new media more than old media to get their information, it is important to analyze the alignment of the content from the sports media outlets to these recipients.

Objective: 

This study seeks to contribute to our understanding of how media biases perpetuates inequality in sports by examining the social media coverage of the 2012 London Olympics by leading sports media outlets. Specifically, this research investigates 1) whether coverage varies by outlet; 2) whether the male bias in coverage observed in print and television media also applies to social media platforms; 3) whether engagement on social media content also favors male sports.

Methods: 

These questions were examined by conducting a content analysis of Faceboook posts (n=496) appearing on the top six sports news outlets’ Facebook pages during the 2012 Olympic Games (July 27- August 12, 2012). These data were collected using the Faceboook Graph API. The data were post level data and also included the engagement details on these posts – the likes, comments and shares. A content analysis was performed to code the data and create variables for: Olympic posts, gender, race, sport, team or individual sport and country. Univariate and bivariate analysis were performed to answer research questions related to frequency of Olympics posts, coverage of female sports and engagement levels on posts.

Results: 

The results show that nearly 60% of social media posts during the London Olympics from these sports outlets focused on the Olympics. Coverage, however, varied by network with NBC Sports (74%) having the highest coverage and Fox Sports (26%) the lowest. Results also show statistical differences in engagement with Olympics coverage content, with ESPN and Yahoo Sports posts having the highest engagement, even after adjusting proportionally for total page likes.

Across all news outlets, male athletes had higher levels of coverage compared to female athletes. On average, twice as many posts focused on male athletes (60%) compared to female athletes (31%), and 10% of the posts focused on both male and female athletes. Like overall coverage, there was variation between networks in the coverage of female athletes. NBC (8%) and Fox News (6%) had smallest difference in male to female coverage while Yahoo, CBS, Bleacher Report, and ESPN covered male athletes 2-3 times more compared to female athletes.

Future Work: 

Future work will examine the specific content of the posts, including text and media type, to investigate differences in the framing of male and female athletes. To extend this content analysis, I will also look at foreign media outlets’ Facebook posts from this timeframe to see if there are different perceptions and representations of Olympic athletes. Lastly, looking at the comments garnered on the posts and doing a sentiment analysis might yield insights into how the audience perceives a post based on its form and content.

References:
Greyser, S. A., Kogan, V. (2013). “NBC and the 2012 London Olympics: Unexpected 
Success” Harvard Business School.

Messner, M. A., Cooky, C. (2010). “Gender in Televised Sports: News and Highlight Shows, 
1989-2009.” Center for Feminist Research.

Messner, M. A., Duncan, C., Jensen, K. (1993). “Separating the Men from the Girls: The 
Gendered Language of Televised Sports.” Gender & Society 7(1): 121-137.

Speakers

Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Pan-Arab Media Engagement in Social Space"
Author: Mohammad Ayish

The advent of social media to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region seems to have brought both Arab professional journalists and mass audiences face to face in a new journalistic environment thriving on greater critical inquiries, pluralistic representations and audience engagements. In significant ways, social media have been viewed as both opportunities and challenges for transnational Arabic communications with varying cultural, political and professional orientations. As much as social platforms have enhanced pan-Arab media communications with significant regional populations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), they have also presented them with challenges pertaining to how they engage with those audiences. 

This study, part of an a broader ongoing book project on pan-Arab media use of social media to optimize audience engagement, covers 10 regional Arabic media outlets and 26 professional pan-Arab journalists with social media presence. It uses social media analytics to investigate outbound pan-Arab media and journalists’ Facebook and Twitter traffic as well as audience engagement. The author uses Simply Measured data analytics to identify engagement features in outbound and inbound Facebook and Twitter traffic associated with pan-Arab media outlets and journalists. 

The study reveals that while pan-Arab media outlets vary in their engagement levels with audiences, they all demonstrate serious commitment to building up credible audience engagement with audiences. As for journalists, significant variations were found among their engagement levels with those of Al Jazeera taking the lead as influencers in cyberspace. The study concludes that audience engagement by pan-Arab media organizations and journalists may not be only a function of their social media investments as much as of other factors like freedom of speech and social media diffusion in the MENA region. 

Speakers
avatar for Mohammad Ayish

Mohammad Ayish

Head of Mass Communication Dept., American University of Sharjah
Hi.. I am a media scholar based in the United Arab Emirates. I hold a doctoral degree from the University of Minnesota, Twin-cities (1986) in international communication and a Bachelor in Broadcast Journalism from the University of Missouri-Columbia (1979). My research interests include Arab satellite television, social media, media ethics and new media business models. I have four published books and over 70 articles and chapters in... Read More →


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"The Social Mediation of Fake News: Postmodern Satire and Echo Effect on Twitter and Facebook"
Author: Dorian Davis.

Research has shown a Ying to the Yang of “collective intelligence,” a “collective credulity” to which surprising numbers of the public are susceptible (Mocanu, Rossie, Zhang, Karsai, & Quattrociocchi, 2014). An example of this “collective credulity” is the misinterpretation of fake news. I argue here that proliferation of social media platforms has helped disseminate that brand of satire to users absent the frame of reference to decode its message: “If this is true, it’s disgusting,” one Facebook user commented (Hongo, 2014) on a piece from The Onion titled, “Labron James Leaning Toward Joining Al Qaeda.” As more of the public gets its news from social media (Anderson & Caumont, 2014), it’s important that users be able to discern fact from fiction. With that goal in mind, I’ll outline here factors that lead users to misread fake news on two social media, Twitter and Facebook. I’ll introduce the term Echo Effect to describe that process, and draw on the #CancelColbert campaign as an example. Afterward, I’ll make recommendations to prevent users from misinterpreting fake news on those platforms, and preview future research.

Speakers

Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Visual Social Media and Disasters: Instagram use During Hurricane Sandy"
Authors: Dhiraj Murthy, Alexander Gross and Marisa McGarry

Social media platforms such as Twitter and Instagram are fast, free, and multicast, attributes that make them particularly for crisis communication. This is a study of Instagram images posted by users to the site Instagram during the 2012 Hurricane Sandy that hit the East Coast. Our sample consists of a two-week timeline surrounding the day of US landfall. We collected 11,964 Instagram images that were embedded into tweets during this time and coded them by hand. We found that images of Sandy’s destruction to the built and natural environment were the most frequent. However, when studied day-by-day, categories, such as food, storm gear, or humor become most frequent. In this way, Instagram images follow phases of the storm from before to after US landfall.

Speakers
avatar for Dr. Dhiraj Murthy

Dr. Dhiraj Murthy

Reader of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London
Dhiraj Murthy’s current research explores social media, virtual organizations, digital ethnography, and big data quantitative analysis. His work on social networking technologies in virtual breeding grounds was funded by the National Science Foundation, Office of CyberInfrastructure. Dhiraj also has a book about Twitter, the first on the subject, is published by Polity Press. His work also uniquely explores the potential role of social... Read More →


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"When trolls become newsworthy: an analysis of news reporting on internet trolling"
Author: Yimin Chen

Writing in the context of Usenet newsgroups, Judith Donath was among the first researchers to describe internet trolls and characterized their actions as “a game of identity deception, albeit one that is played without the consent of most of the players” [1]. While the practice of trolling in online communities has always been controversial [2], events in recent years such as the Gamergate controversy [3] and a number of youth suicides [4,5] have pushed the issue of internet trolling more and more into the public eye. Many researchers and reporters have linked the term to online abuse and cyberbullying [6], while others maintain that trolling is really about harmless pranks and subversive humour [7]. This paper aims to add context and clarity to the discourse on trolling by analyzing how the subject is framed in the news. 

Objective: 

The mainstream media plays an important role in shaping public opinion on events and issues – particularly the news media, which is often taken to be a trustworthy source of information [8]. This framing effect of news has been well documented in the communications literature [9]. Taking news reports on internet trolling as representative of popular understanding, the goals of this study are to identify how trolling is framed in the news in two areas: 
1. What events and actions does the news associate with trolling? 
2. Who are the trolls in these reports and who are their targets? 

Methods: 

This study draws from an 11 year sample of English news articles from around the world that mention internet trolling. Content analysis was performed on these 240 articles, with coding focused on terms associated with trolling actions, persons and groups identified as perpetrators, and persons and groups identified as targets. 

Results: 

Preliminary results suggest that news reporting on trolling is most often framed as a story about cyberbullying and online abuse, particularly over social media sites like Twitter and Facebook. Furthermore, the majority of victims are either women, children, or celebrities. 

Future Work: 

This study is part one of a project aimed at exploring the contradictions and discrepancies surrounding the discourse on trolling: namely, that viewpoints tend to either focus on trolling as harassment and bullying, or on trolling as playful mischief. This part of the project is intended to examine mainstream opinions and conceptions of trolling, as represented by the news. Part two will seek to contrast this with views and opinions from the internet subculture to identify and explain the points of contention. 

References: 

[1] Donath, J. (1999). Identity and deception in the virtual community. In Smith, M. & Kollock, P. (eds.), Communities in Cyberspace (pp. 29-59). London: Routledge. 

[2] Coleman, G. (2012). Phreaks, hackers, and trolls: The politics of transgression and spectacle. In Mandiberg, M. (Ed), The social media reader (pp. 99-119). New York : New York University Press. 

[3] Sanghani, R. (2014, September 10). Misogyny, death threats and a mob of trolls: Inside the dark world of video games with Zoe Quinn - target of #GamerGate. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/11082629/Gamergate-Misogyny-death-threats-and-a-mob-of-angry-trolls-Inside-the-dark-world-of-video-games.html 

[4] National Post Wire Services. (2012, October 17). Ontario man loses job after writing cruel Facebook comment about Amanda Todd. National Post. Retrieved from http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/cruel-facebook-comment-about-amanda-todds-suicide-costs-man-his-job 

[5] The Canadian Press. (2015, March 10). Rehtaeh Parsons's father speaks out about cyberbullying at UN. CBC. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/rehtaeh-parsons-s-father-speaks-out-about-cyberbullying-at-un-1.2988471 

[6] Steffgen, G. & König, A. (2009). . Cyberbullying: The role of traditional bullying and empathy. In Sapio, B., Haddon, L., Mante-Meijer, E., Fortunati, L., Turk, T., Loos, E. (Eds.), The Good, The Bad and The Challenging: The user and the future of information and communication technologies: Conference Proceedings (Volume II), 1041-1047. 

[7] Phillips, W. (2011). Meet the Trolls. Index on Censorship, 40 (2), pp. 68-76. 

[8] McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public opinion quarterly, 36(2), 176-187. 

[9] Semetko, H. A., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2000). Framing European politics: A content analysis of press and television news. Journal of communication, 50(2), 93-109. 

Speakers
avatar for Yimin Chen

Yimin Chen

PhD Candidate, University of Western Ontario


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Communication of Communities: Linguistic Characteristics of Online Groups"
Author: Bree Mcewan 

Online communities constitute important spaces for individuals to seek out new network connections, informational resources, and social support. The virility of an online community and its ability to attract newcomers may rely on four specific characteristics of a message board, stability, cohesiveness, sociability, and interactivity. Stability refers to how likely it is that an online community will remain in place over time (Arguello, Butler, Joyce, Kraut, Ling, & Wang, 2006). Cohesiveness refers to community members seeing the group as sharing some vision or interest (Casey-Campbell & Martens, 2009; Festinger, 1950; Lott & Lott, 1965). Communities with sociability are marked by generally open, friendly, and caring communication (Preece, 2001; Wise, Hamman, & Thorson, 2006). In addition, sociability may be marked by informal language and the development of in-group idioms. Finally, interactivity refers to thread depth within messages and the level of responsiveness (Arguello et al., Preece, 2001; Joyce & Kraut, 2006). This project investigates the existence of and connections between these four characteristics.

Speakers
avatar for Bree Mcewan

Bree Mcewan

Associate Professor, Western Illinois University
Researching intersection of interpersonal and computer-mediated communication. Would love to chat with people about measures (recently published Facebook Relational Maintenance Measure and have Affordances measure in the works) and linguistic analyses (working on some LIWC stuff) Also working on 2016-2017 sabbatical application and looking to spend it in Toronto so if you know of research/teaching/visiting scholar opportunities....


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-109 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Eager Tweeters: Exploring motivations for participation in a Twitter community of interest"
Author: Sarah Gilbert

Background: Founded in 2010 by Colleen Young, #hcsmca is a Twitter community of interest dedicated to discussing healthcare in Canada. Its vision is “to drive social collaboration for better health and health care” (Young, 2014). #hcsmca’s membership is comprised of people from diverse social and professional roles. Given the diversity of the group and the breadth of interests and expertise, this case study will explore why members participate in #hcsmca with a particular emphasis on the role learning plays in motivation. 

Objective: Findings from this case study are anticipated to provide input on what aspects of social media use support learning and community; will expand theoretical understanding of motivations to contribute to online environments; will provide contributor insight into learning in online environments; and will address the societal impacts of social media use, particularly when used outside formal learning settings for learning. 

Methods: To identify and explore motivations for participating in #hcsmca I am conducting semi-structured interviews with #hcsmca community members. Recruitment was aimed to target members of varying levels of participation (e.g., regular contributors to peripheral participants), varying levels of experience in the community (e.g., long time members to newbies), and varying roles (e.g., activists, healthcare practitioners, patients and patient advocates, and social media experts). During interviews participants respond to questions designed to identify their experience with and role in the community and questions based on intrinsic and extrinsic motivating factors such as learning (intrinsic) and identification with the community’s goals and topics (extrinsic) (Budhathoki & Haythornthwaite, 2012). Eighteen expert interviews have been conducted as of the submission date. 

Results: As data collection is still in progress, formal analysis has not yet been conducted on the transcripts. However, themes are emerging from the data. For example, while Twitter seems an unlikely candidate as a platform on which to engage in in-depth discussions of complex topics due to its 140-character message limit, for many participants the affordances of Twitter are integral to their participation. Features such as mentions, the “favourite” function, and re-tweeting provide indications that members’ contributions to the conversation are valued. Additionally, features of the social network impact motivation. #hcsmca is a diverse social network (Gruzd & Haythornthwaite, 2012). Members have varying professional and social roles, and live in geographic locales throughout North America. This diversity and the novel information, perspectives, and experiences that are shared between group members has been cited by most participants as a key element of their learning experiences and drive to participate. 

Future Work: Immediate future work will focus on formal analysis of the interviews (analysis is expected to be complete or nearly complete by the time of the conference). As a case study in a larger project, results from this case will eventually be integrated with two other cases to explore motivations between participants in large-scale open crowd-based environments and participants in online communities. 

Speakers
avatar for Sarah Gilbert

Sarah Gilbert

PhD Student, University of British Columbia


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-109 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"It's None of Our Business: Framing Ray Rice Domestic Violence Incident on Social Media"
Authors: Ann Pegoraro, Evan Frederick and Marion Hambrick

In February 2014, Ray Rice, an NFL running back with the Baltimore Ravens, was arrested on charges of domestic violence, and videos of him dragging his unconscious fiancé from an elevator surfaced. In May, he spoke publicly about the incident accompanied by his now wife Janay Rice and apologized for the incident (Bein, 2014). The NFL responded by suspending him for two games. On September 8th, a video was released by TMZ that showed Rice hitting Janay in the elevator and knocking her out. Rice was subsequently suspended indefinitely by the NFL and released by the Ravens (Bein, 2014). Sports fans took to social media to express their views on the incident and its handling by the NFL. In fact topics related to this situation trended on Twitter for almost two full weeks (Price, 2014). 

Objective: 

In traditional media, empirical studies on news framing have found frames to influence audience attitudes on various issues. Recently, Nisbet (2010) has indicated the need for increased examination of bottom-up framing on social media, which involves framing by consistent producers of content, as the conventions of online media enable individuals to employ these practices. Framing of issues from a bottom-up perspective has been found to provide increased awareness and dispersion regarding social issues (Hamdy & Gomaa, 2012). In addition, Meraz and Papacharissi (2013) found that over time certain frames rise to prominence through crowdsourcing practices, and are reframed to remain relevant in the minds of the audience, a process they referred to as networked framing. The concepts of bottom-up framing and networked framing have been utilized extensively in political communication research but many scholars have argued that sport is a significant and constituent part of most contemporary societies (i.e., Crawford, 2004) and as such, sport fans, media and society in general often engage with sport as it intertwines with social issues. Therefore, sport also provides an excellent setting in which to study the framing of societal issues. 

The purpose of this study is to examine bottom-up framing and networked framing in a sport environment, specifically analysing the differences in framing by social media platform regarding the social issues brought to light during the Ray Rice domestic violence incident. 

Methods: 

Data were collected from Twitter (n= 2,371,504) and from the Baltimore Ravens Facebook page (n = 21,479 comments/posts) over the time period of September 8th to 12th. This dataset was then imported into Leximancer textual analysis software that conducts conceptual (i.e., thematic) and relational (i.e., semantic) analysis on content. Thematic analysis was conducted on data segmented by time periods to elucidate any differences in framing over time. 

Results: 

Preliminary data analysis revealed fans constructing debates on social media such as Who is to blame? Forgiving Wife and Good Man. An analysis of the full dataset will be completed prior to the 2015 Social Media and Society Conference. Theoretical implications regarding bottom-up framing and audience sentiments pertaining to the social issue of domestic violence as they play out in the sport world will be discussed. 

References: 

Crawford, G. (2004). Consuming Sport: Fans, Sport and Culture. New York: Routledge. 
Hamdy, N., & Gomaa, E.H. (2012). Framing the Egyptian uprising in Arabic language newspapers and social media. The Journal of Communication, 62, 195-211. 
Bein, L., (28, November 2014). A complete timeline of the Ray Rice assault case. Retrieved from http://www.sbnation.com/nfl/2014/5/23/5744964/ray-rice-arrest-assault-statement-apology-ravens 
Meraz, S., & Papacharissi, Z. (2013). Networked gatekeeping and networked framing on #Egypt. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 18(2), 138-166. 
Nisbet, M. (2010). Knowledge into action: Framing the debates over climate change and poverty. In Paul D’Angelo & Jim Kuypers (Eds.), Doing frame analysis: Empirical and theoretical perspectives (pp. 43-83). New York, NY: Routledge. 
Price, G. (10, September 2014). Fire Roger Goodell Trends Twitter: NFL Commissioner May Have Lied In Interview About Graphic Ray Rice Assault Video
Retrieved from http://www.ibtimes.com/fire-roger-goodell-trends-twitter-nfl-commissioner-may-have-lied-interview-about-graphic-1685030 

Speakers
avatar for Ann Pegoraro

Ann Pegoraro

Associate Professor, Director - Institute for Sport Marketing, Laurentian University
If you are interested in social media research - let's talk!


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-109 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Movember: Twitter Conversations in a Hairy Social Movement"
Authors: Jenna Jacobson and Christopher Mascaro

Movember is an annual “month-long celebration of the moustache” where men grow a moustache and raise money for prostate cancer and men’s health in the largest philanthropic endeavour for men’s health. Movember is predominantly an online campaign, and, consequently, participants have actively embraced social media; this is evidenced in the 1,879,994 tweets archived during Movember 2012 in this research project. 

This paper presents the first quantitative analysis of Movember, which uncovers a syntactical feature overview, an in-depth conversational analysis, and a top-level domain analysis of the shared URLs in order to develop a nuanced understanding of how people are utilizing social media as part of this social movement. 

While Movember has been successful in gaining traction on social media, the Twitter data points to surprising conclusions that have implications for understanding non-profits and social movements online: 1) there is limited true conversation taking place, and 2) participants are more engaged with Movember as a branded movement, than engaged in health promotion. 

Objective: 
Based on the dearth of scholarly research on Movember, our research has a two-fold goal: firstly, develop a foundational understanding of Movember in order to develop both a base and in-depth understanding, and secondly, provide a methodological contribution about how a social movement can be analyzed on Twitter in order to provide nuanced insight about the movement. Since Movember is about having conversations about men’s health, we focus on tweets that are conversational in nature. These are conceptualized as at-reply tweets (those that begin with @[username]). 

1. What do the syntactical features used by participants identify about individual use of social media to discuss Movember? 
2. What are the conversational networks that are constructed as a result of the activity within Twitter? 
3. What type of information is shared via URLs in conversational activity surrounding Movember? 


Methods: 
The data were collected using the TwitterZombie infrastructure (Black et al., 2012). The set of 13 queries (see Table 1) were added to the collection system on the morning of October 31st and were collected at an interval of once every minute throughout the month of November. The Twitter timelines were also collected for the seven official Movember Twitter accounts. The data were collected from October 31-December 1, 2012 to gather data from the day before Movember started and the day after it finished. 

Results: 
The paper makes three contributions to the literature. First, the distribution of syntactical features and the temporal frequency of tweets represent unique activity that illustrates Movember as a social movement. Second, the URLs that are shared represent a variety of URLs, but are mostly focused on user-generated content and other information hosted on the Movember website. There is little information shared about Movember as a cause or men’s health more broadly. Third, there is limited actual conversation occurring on Twitter and the individuals that used the at-reply feature to initiate conversations rarely received a response. 

While Movember has been successful in gaining traction on social media, the Twitter data points to surprising conclusions that have implications for understanding non-profits and social movements online: 1) there is limited true conversation taking place, and 2) participants are more engaged with Movember as a branded movement, than engaged in health promotion. The combination of these approaches helps build an understanding of how people are utilizing social media as part of this social movement. 

Future Work: 
This research contributes to the scholarly discourse surrounding Twitter both methodologically and theoretically. The analysis illustrates how social media can be utilized to trace the conversations of a digitally mediated social movement. 

At the 2015 Social Media and Society Conference, we will also introduce preliminary findings of the longitudinal analysis of Twitter activity on Movember. 

References: 
Black, A, Mascaro, C., Gallagher, M, & Goggins, S. P. (2012). Twitter Zombie: Architecture for Capturing, Socially Transforming and Analyzing the Twittersphere. In Proceedings of the 17th ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 229-238.

Speakers
avatar for Jenna Jacobson

Jenna Jacobson

University Of Toronto
@jacobsonjenna


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-109 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"Music fan communities on Sina Weibo and Baidu Tieba: a case study of Chinese singers"
Authors: Ying Ha Yiu, Ho Yin Ng and Xiao Hu

This paper attempts to explore the interactions among mandarin music fan communities by investigating how fans interact with their idol accounts and what they discuss on different social media platforms in Chinese social media platforms, Sina Weibo and Baidu Tieba. The research will be discussed in connection with three representable and popular singers chosen from three main regions in Mandarin music industry: Feng Wang (China mainland), Eason Chan (Hong Kong) and Jay Chou (Taiwan). Significant distinctions can be hence observed across singers and communities in the two social media platforms. The findings can improve our understanding on the behaviours of Mandarin music fans on the most popular social media platforms in China.


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-109 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

14:46

"When #BlackWomen Trend: Public Discourse, Social Media Sharing, and Black Women’s Experiences with Police Violence"
Authors: Dara Byrne and Naomi Haber

The recent killings of Eric Garner, Tamir Rice, and Michael Brown have once again drawn attention to racial disparities in police use of excessive force in the United States. Despite data that shows that black women are more likely to experience excessive force than their white counterparts, mainstream media representation of victims focuses almost exclusively on black men. Much of what is known about black women's experiences with police violence has been the direct result of social media sharing of personal stories, viral videos, and anecdotal evidence--many of which circulate with the popular hashtag trend #blackwomenmatter. Given the dearth of formal research on this topic, this study employs a multi-step, multi-method design to analyze social media sharing of six recent brutality cases involving black women. The goal of this research is to provide valuable insights into the ways social media spaces help to foster (and sometimes hinder) public debate about the intersections between race, gender, class, and police violence. Examining these interrelated issues is essential for expanding how we currently understand the pervasiveness of violence against African-American communities and the role social media plays in calling attention to such injustices.

Speakers
avatar for Naomi Haber

Naomi Haber

Hello! I'm an undergraduate honors student at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. I have designed a dual concentration major called 'New Media and Social Justice' with the CUNY BA program and will be beginning my junior year this Fall of 2015.


Tuesday July 28, 2015 14:46 - 16:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-109 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

16:15

Break
Tuesday July 28, 2015 16:15 - 16:30
(7th Floor) TRS1-148 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

16:30

Poster Reception
  1. #SocialMedia among Young Adolescent Females in Southwestern Ontario by Patricia Dube, Sara Santarossa and Sarah Woodruff
  2. #SocialMedia: Somethin' to tweet about by Sara Santarossa and Sarah Woodruff
  3. “Let’s Keep in Touch on Social Media after the Conference!” Researchers’ Professional Use of Social Media by Guang Ying Mo
  4. A Study on Japanese Politician's Social Media Use during Election Campaignby Kenji Yoshimi & Daiji Hario
  5. An algorithm to predict the tourist appraisal attitude on the review site by Daiji Hario, Seiji Inoto and Kenji Yoshimi [Cancelled]
  6. APCOGS-EVM – an mobile e-waste social media application for eradication of Neglected Tropical Diseases in India by Dr. Chandana Unnithan
  7. Beneath the Surfaces and Beyond the Edges of Social Media in the City: Designing Spaces for Meaningful Engagement, Learning, and Participation in 21st Century Urban Environments by H. Patricia Mckenna
  8. Bridging the Distance: Using Web 2.0 Tools to Make Online Education More Socialby Paige Cunningham
  9. Building capacity to explore best practices and generate research directions: Social media and public health in Ontario by Richard Booth, Lorie Donelle, Anita Kothari, Josephine McMurray, Sandra Regan, Lyndsay Foisey, Susan McBride, Annette Sobel, Rob Fraser and Jodi Hall
  10. Cluster Analysis in a Twitter Protest Network by Min Jeong Kim
  11. Collaborative online member engagement in health care regulatory organizationsby Patricia Paton
  12. Communication and the construction of networked memories: an analysis of the Brazilian web portal Memories of the Dictatorship by Camila Kieling
  13. Defining, measuring and building ‘effective’ online/offline community by Caroline Halcrow
  14. Does the Punishment Fit the Crime? A Case Analysis of Social Media Punishmentby Katie Lebel
  15. Facebook Brand Pages : Conversation or Advertising Show? by Karine Berthelot-Guiet
  16. Gamified Marketing Communication with Social Media by Ian Ray Barcarse & Frauke Zeller
  17. Gubernatorial @mentioning Message Strategy on Twitter by Sikana Tanupabrungsun, Jeff Hemsley, Bryan Semaan and Jennifer Stromer-Galley
  18. Heating up the discussion: E-cigarettes and Instagram by Stephanie Ritter
  19. I "HEART" FB: A Q-Methodology Analysis of Why People “LIKE” Facebook by Erica Rivera, Janice Cho, Tom Robinson, Clark Callahan and Kris Boyle
  20. I Know How to Persuade You If I Know Your Personality: The effect of Personality on Social Persuasion in Quantified-Self Scenarios by Ashish K. Tripathi, Vivek K. Singh, Shakhawat Hossain, Pradeep K. Atrey and Alex 'Sandy' Pentland
  21. Instamovement: Visualizing #BlackLivesMatter as Citizen Journalism on Instagramby Ana Rita Morais
  22. Interpolating Missing Opinions by Iuliia Chepurna & Masoud Makrehchi
  23. Measuring actual and perceived digital and eHealth literacy: A Hebrew version examination of the eHEALS scale among older adults by Esther Brainin and Efrat Neter
  24. Non-computer Users Use Smartphones as Polymedia in Taiwan by Chen-Ta Sung [Cancelled]
  25. On and Off, Back and Forth: Observing Churches Engagement with Social Mediaby David Michels
  26. Online Communities as a Liminal Spaces for Deconverts by Patricia Moore-Jeter
  27. Sharing news on the Web: The role of expectancy violations in viral success by Robin Blom
  28. Social media and public-military relations by Rupinder Mangat
  29. Social media co-viewing: the first episode of the prime time television program in Brazil by Fernanda Pires de Sá
  30. Social Media Pedagogy by Mike Nantais
  31. Stories of An (Unlived) Past: Applying Narrative Theory, Vicarious Nostalgia, and Brand Authenticity to Social Media Brand Advertising by Cristina Rizzardo & Frauke Zeller
  32. Students’ online behaviour changes in social knowledge networks by Ahmad Khanlari, Derya Kici and Stacy Costa
  33. Studying Rumor-Spreading Users in Social Media- A Case Study of Reddit by Anh Dang, Mike Smit, Anatoliy Gruzd, Evangelos Milios
  34. Tales from the tweets: A narrative analysis of tweets on library consultants and library consulting by Mark-Shane Scale
  35. The Impact of Social Media on the Current Labor Market by Aleksandra Solak
  36. The sentiment revealed in social networks during the games of the Brazilian team in the World Cup of 2014: A conceptual Approach of Actor-Network Theory by Rita Paulino
  37. The Social Life of Social Media Policies by Lorri Mon
  38. The use of Twitter for #cyberbullying prevention by Lina Gomez & Alexandra Prieto
  39. Towards a Theory of Socially Shared Physical Activity: Literature Review, Taxonomy and Research Agenda by Kjeld S. Hansen, Tor-Morten Grønli and Ravi Vatrapu
  40. Transmitting Spectacle, Manufacturing Desire: The Live Fashion Show in Mediatized Consumer Culture by Rebecca Halliday
  41. Trust, Participation and Social Media: A Theory Intervention by Anil Kunnel
  42. User behaviours and perceptions of Whatsapp and Wechat by Xiao Hu, Dickson Kai Tik Wong and David Yan Chun To
  43. Using Social Media to Engage Educators in Learning by Mike Nantais & Jackie Kirk

Tuesday July 28, 2015 16:30 - 19:00
(7th Floor) TRS1-148 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

19:30

Networking Event (Optional)
Please join us for an informal social gathering at Pogue Mahone Irish Pub at 777 Bay Street (on Google Map) Please note: the bar/restaurant can also be reached directly via 33 College Street,Toronto, ON. (416) 598-3339. The conference will provide some finger foods at 7:45pm & 8:45 pm.(see menu below.) Drinks and full meals are also available on a cash bar basis paid by individual guests. http://www.poguemahone.ca/menus/)

7:45 p.m. 

Chicken wings

Nachos 

Fresh veggies & dip 

Duo of dips

Honey garlic meatballs

Thai spring rolls (chicken)

8:45 p.m. Menu

Vegetarian flat bread 

Chicken quesadilla 

Chicken wings 4lbs 

Fresh fruit platter 

Cheese Platter 


Tuesday July 28, 2015 19:30 - 22:30
Pogue Mahone Irish Pub (Social/Optional) 777 Bay St. Toronto, ON
 
Wednesday, July 29
 

08:30

Registration & Coffee Reception
Wednesday July 29, 2015 08:30 - 09:00
(7th Floor) Registration Desk (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas St W Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:00

Best Paper and Poster Awards & General Announcements
Speakers
avatar for Anatoliy Gruzd

Anatoliy Gruzd

Director | Associate Professor, Ryerson University
Canada Research Chair in Social Media Data Stewardship, | Director-Social Media Lab http://SocialMediaLab.ca/ , Associate Professor-Ted Rogers School of Management at Ryerson University
avatar for Jenna Jacobson

Jenna Jacobson

University Of Toronto
@jacobsonjenna
avatar for Dr. Dhiraj Murthy

Dr. Dhiraj Murthy

Reader of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London
Dhiraj Murthy’s current research explores social media, virtual organizations, digital ethnography, and big data quantitative analysis. His work on social networking technologies in virtual breeding grounds was funded by the National Science Foundation, Office of CyberInfrastructure. Dhiraj also has a book about Twitter, the first on the subject, is published by Polity Press. His work also uniquely explores the potential role of social... Read More →


Wednesday July 29, 2015 09:00 - 09:30
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:30

Panel 2A
Wednesday July 29, 2015 09:30 - 10:30
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:30

Panel 2B
Wednesday July 29, 2015 09:30 - 10:30
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:30

Session 3A: Politics & Engagement
Moderators
avatar for Matthew Flisfeder

Matthew Flisfeder

Assistant Professor, Ryerson University
Dr. Flisfeder’s interdisciplinary research addresses questions about the intersection of media, ideology, and subjectivity, and examines the role of media and popular culture in reproducing ideological hegemony and in interpellating subjects compliant in the dominance of capitalism and neoliberalism. His research contributes to debates on media and society, ideologies of postmodern and consumer culture, subjectivity and identity, and... Read More →

Wednesday July 29, 2015 09:30 - 10:30
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:31

Panel 2A: "More Than Just a “Follower”: How Is Academia Being Influenced by Online Communities of Practice & Networked Scholarship?"
Contributors: 
  • Laura Pasquini, University of North Texas
  • Bonnie Stewart, University of Prince Edward Island
  • Rebecca J. Hogue, University of Ottawa
  • Sava saheli singh, New York University
  • Jessica Knott, Michigan State University

This panel will focus on the intersections between social media and academia, in relation to the theme of Social Media’s Impact on Society, but discussion will examine impact through the lens of trust and credibility within online communities. In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks and communities of practice. This fosters extensive cross-disciplinary public ties and rewards connection, collaboration, and curation between individuals rather than roles or institutions. These informal online developments and support networks in higher education is contributing to scholarly publications, professional development, and personal support. That being said, participation within these networks offers both opportunities and challenges with engagement. This panel will discuss their perspectives and encourage audience participants to share their stories, questions, and ideas on this topic.

Speakers
avatar for Rebecca Hogue

Rebecca Hogue

PhD Candidate, University of Ottawa
I’m Rebecca J Hogue (@rjhogue). I’m a blogger (http://rjh.goingeast.ca, http://bcbecky.com, and http://goingeast.ca), a scholar, an educator, and aspiring writer. I'm a PhD Candidate at the University of Ottawa and an Associate Lecturer at the University of Massachusetts-Boston. I teach Emerging Technologies and Instructional Design online. My research and innovation interests are in the development of health literacy through peer-to-peer... Read More →
avatar for Laura Pasquini

Laura Pasquini

Lecturer/Postdoctoral Researcher, University of North Texas/Royal Roads University
Exploring communities & networks for #OrgLearning and HRD.@UNTCOI Lecturer.@RoyalRoads Postdoctoral Researcher. Past & founding Editor of the @LPQuarterly.On @NACADA Council.#edusocmedia #OER #edtech #highered
avatar for sava saheli singh

sava saheli singh

NYU, United States of America
sava is currently a PhD candidate in the Educational Communication and Technology program at NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development. she looks at the role twitter plays in academic communities and communication. she pays special attention to when, why, and how these constructs and flows break, and how to subvert them.
avatar for Bonnie Stewart

Bonnie Stewart

University of Prince Edward Island
Bonnie Stewart is a writer, educator, and researcher fascinated by who we are when we're online. She explores the intersections of knowledge and technologies in her work, taking up networks, institutions and identity in contemporary higher education. Published in Salon.com, The Guardian UK, and Inside Higher Ed, as well as peer-reviewed academic venues, Bonnie has advised educational projects and programs in Sweden, the UK, the US, and Canada... Read More →


Wednesday July 29, 2015 09:31 - 10:30
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:31

Panel 2B: "Small-N, Big Insights: A "Thick Data" Approach to Social Media Research"
Contributors:
  • Guillaume Latzko-Toth (panel chair), Assistant Professor, Department of information and communication, Université Laval 
  • Claudine Bonneau, Assistant Professor, Department of management and technology, Université du Québec à Montréal (ESG-UQAM)
  • Mélanie Millette, Substitute Professor, Department of social and public communication, Université du Québec à Montréal
In the context of a “computational turn” in social sciences and humanities (Berry, 2011), and a growing appeal for “Big Data” analysis in those fields, is qualitative research based on small samples and corpuses still relevant? Traditional ethnographic approaches are deemed to provide insights based on a limited number of observations or, worse, declarative accounts of practices relying on participants’ memory—and honesty. “Big Data” methods, on the other hand, promise to grant researchers “direct” access to real practices of vast populations. However, as noted by some critiques (boyd & Crawford, 2012; Gitelman, 2013; Tufekci, 2014), interpreting and making sense of these loads of data can be very challenging, especially considering the importance of context in the study of media practices. Others have pointed out that rather than opposing them, Big Data and “Thick Data” strategies can work together (Wang, 2013; Ford, 2014). In the three presentations of this panel, social scientists with a qualitative, interpretive approach share some innovative strategies of inquiry they devised for case studies on the uses of social media. 

In his presentation “Small data, thick data: (Re)collecting networked publics’ experiences of a public debate,” Guillaume Latzko-Toth presents an innovative method that Madeleine Pastinelli (Université Laval), Nicole Gallant (Institut national de la recherche scientifique, INRS) and he have crafted for their research on the circulation of information on social media during the 2012 student strike in Quebec. They wanted to know to what extent Facebook had been used by young adults to be informed, discuss, and form their opinions on this major public issue. After having considered the option of using a computer script to collect whole sets of digital traces from a sample of Facebook users, an alternative approach was developed: the “commented visit” of users’ activity logs. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults (students and non-students, N=30). While the first part of the interview was conventional, with a series of topics ranging from informational habits to political engagement, the second part took place in front of the computer screen, and consisted in the examination of the participant’s Facebook activity log around predetermined dates, over a whole year. The posts, comments, “likes” and other forms of interactions with contents and other users were video-recorded with a dynamic screen-capture software and analyzed along with the participant’s oral comments during the visit. This method allowed researchers to observe digital practices retrospectively, with the benefit of contextualization and reflexivity from the subjects themselves, adding a layer of “thickness” to the data. 

In her presentation “Investigating open ended phenomena on Twitter through manual data collection: Challenges and opportunities,” Claudine Bonneau argues that Big Data approaches for collecting user-generated content are of no use when machine-processable criteria cannot be predetermined. This is the case with an online phenomenon referred to as “working out loud”, an emergent practice that may be described as a process of continuously narrating the work during the course of its realization. Because that practice can emerge on Twitter as employee-driven initiatives and can be found in any professional field, it is not possible to a priori circumscribe data collection to specific organizations where it is encouraged or prescribed by the employer, nor is it possible to a priori limit investigation to one professional community where working out loud would already be quite common. Such an open-endedness implies that it is impossible to specify any events, hashtags or keywords. While posing a series of methodological challenges, the manual collection and qualitative analysis of a modest corpus of tweets (N=200) allowed Bonneau to generate research intuitions that could not be discovered through a quantitative analysis of a large dataset, namely the role that Twitter can play in workers’ lives. 

In her presentation “From small data to thick data: Investigating Twitter uses in French-Canadian minority context,” Mélanie Millette explains the challenges she faced while she was investigating how Francophones outside of Quebec were using Twitter to become visible. Although Canada’s French-speaking minority is largely concentrated in Quebec, over a million French-Canadians live outside this province. This minority has developed social media strategies to gain visibility in the mediated public sphere. Considering the scattered nature of the population under study, a mixed method and a long time span were key to collect relevant, “thick” data. Although the methodology was partly inspired by data mining techniques that often result in “big” datasets, Millette collected a relatively “small” set of tweets over four months (N=8,764). Three main strategies of inquiry have been mobilized. First, observant participation on Twitter was conducted for more than 2 years and a half. Second, a mixed method was crafted where data mining was guided by a first round of exploratory interviews (by phone) and by the observation phase. Third, a second set of interviews has been conducted in person (N=27) with users selected from the Twitter database. Ultimately, the method succeeded in providing thickness and depth to the analysis, as data from Twitter mining and data from interviews were informing each other in terms of social media patterns and meaning in the French-Canadian minority context. 


Speakers
avatar for Claudine Bonneau

Claudine Bonneau

Assistant Professor, ESG-UQAM
social media at work, collaborative work, OSS & open innovation
avatar for Guillaume Latzko-Toth

Guillaume Latzko-Toth

Associate Professor, Université Laval
Codirector - Laboratory on Computer-Mediated Communication (LabCMO - www.labcmo.ca) | Digital STS / User contribution to the design of social media / Methodological and ethical issues in Internet research | Twitter: @guillaumelatzko
avatar for Mélanie Millette

Mélanie Millette

Professeure substitut, UQAM
Social Media, Political Participation, Visibility, Identity. | Membre LabCMO - UQAM • http://cmo.uqam.ca | SSHRC Armand-Bombardier & Trudeau Foundation Scholar • http://www.fondationtrudeau.ca


Wednesday July 29, 2015 09:31 - 10:30
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:31

! "#vote4me: the impact of Twitter on municipal campaign success"
Author: Douglas Hagar

This study analyzes the impact of Twitter use on electoral performance in the 2014 Ontario municipal elections. An analysis of the extent of Twitter use as well as the type of election-related tweets is also presented. It was found that the content of election-related tweets contained minimal discussion of electoral issues, consisting primarily of candidate campaign updates and messages of support from voters. Hashtag discussions follow a similar trend. Despite the shallow depth of discussion, this research suggests that the use of Twitter can have a positive impact on electoral performance for municipal candidates.

Speakers

Wednesday July 29, 2015 09:31 - 10:30
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:31

"Hijacking the Media Event Platform: Pussy Riot, Sousveillance, and the Sochi Protests"
Author: Kenzie Burchell

The contemporary reformulation of the ‘Media Events’ framework (Dayan & Katz, 1992) often focuses, and justifiably so, on the transformative role of mobile, video, and social networking technologies in a global context (Couldry and Hepp 2009; Katz and Liebes 2007) often eclipsing however the relationship between these mediated actions and the geographically-bounded space of the media event. For activists and other actors excluded from contributing to the wider event narrative, infiltration of both the physical space and social media spaces represents a potential vehicle for mobilizing media attention and engaging audiences with an alternate interpretation of the spectacle.This research examines three protests cases during the Sochi Winter Olympics comparing analysis of twitter conversations, broadcasting coverage, and situated physical elements of the protest, specifically by Pussy Riot, Google, and transgender former Italian MP V. Luxuria.

Speakers
avatar for Kenzie Burchell

Kenzie Burchell

Assistant Professor of Journalism, University of Toronto
Media Sociologist.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 09:31 - 10:30
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

09:31

"Indigenous Political Representation Between Democratization and Marginalization: The Roles of Social and News Media in the 2009 Peruvian Amazon Conflict"
Authors: Jeremy John Escobar Torio and Conny Davidsen

In June 2008, the Peruvian President – with powers granted by the Peruvian Congress – issued a controversial neoliberal reform package that sought to privatize and sell contested lands in the Peruvian Amazon for economic development via international investors. The reform package also bypassed legal land tenure and indigenous Amazon community rights, which prompted indigenous resistance and protests by the leading indigenous organization of the Peruvian Amazon, AIDESEP, in June 2009. The indigenous protests subsequently led to violent encounters with the state military that killed more than 30 people and resulted in the resignation of two key politicians. The 2009 Peruvian Amazon conflict captured intense social and news media attention that opened old and new conflicts ranging from issues of local indigenous rights to global environmental concerns. Amidst the issues that social and news media captured and centred upon during the conflict, the media platforms are adding new dimensions to matters of indigenous political representation that is only starting to be addressed. This paper examines how the use of social media by, and how reports in news media of, indigenous Amazonian communities impacted indigenous political representation during Peru’s 2009 Amazon conflict. 

Using qualitative methodological designs, which are complemented by quantitative data, the study focuses on two analytical elements. The first analyzes social and news media discourses with the investigative focus on the Facebook page of AIDESEP (social media) and three widely read national news dailies in Peru (news media). The second is the examination of semi-structured qualitative interviews with Peruvian actors directly and indirectly involved in the conflict, which are complemented by literature analysis of related lessons vis-à-vis representation of indigenous communities. 

The study suggests that Facebook use by indigenous Amazonians democratized their political voices and protest movements that challenged and even toppled the neoliberal reform package through direct networks between local and global actors. Moreover, Facebook facilitated an indigenous political representation grounded on indigenous ideologies devoid of media gatekeepers and third party interpretations/representations. However, the study also finds the wide audience reach of the national news media alongside its representations of indigenous Amazonians as one of three misrepresentations (violent groups, economic disruptors, and ethnically/politically-fragmented factions) further marginalized them from Peruvian society and their own indigenous communities, hindering a more effective indigenous political representation in the 2009 Peruvian Amazon conflict. 

This paper opens three avenues for future work surrounding social media and indigenous communities. First concerns social media and indigenous Amazonian solidarity in terms of cultural preservation and/or exchange of indigenous beliefs, cosmologies, and ideologies via social media platforms. Second is understanding and establishing a practical framework for consultation processes using social media as the platform for communicating with indigenous communities who live in disputed lands. Finally, a comparison between North and South American indigenous communities and their use of social media presents interesting questions surrounding the life cycle of indigenous movements/protests against neoliberalism. 

Speakers
CD

Conny Davidsen

Assistant Professor, University of Calgary
Dr. Conny Davidsen is interested in environmental policy and governance processes from a political ecology perspective, especially local-global and discourse interfaces with 'new' and 'old' media, implementation and communication challenges across multi-scale environmental governance and policy implementation. This includes environmental movements and conflict, socio-environmental discourses and roles of the media, environmental/political and... Read More →
avatar for Jeremy John Escobar Torio

Jeremy John Escobar Torio

Visiting Scholar, University of Calgary
Jeremy holds an M.A. (2014) in geography and a combined B.A. (2010) in geography and urban studies from the University of Calgary. He is interested in the socio-political forces embedded in the communication of environmental problems and solutions, especially concerning the communication relationship amongst aboriginal/indigenous groups, government officials, industry representatives, and Non-Governmental Organizations. He is also interested... Read More →


Wednesday July 29, 2015 09:31 - 10:30
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:30

Coffee Break
Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:30 - 10:45
(7th Floor) TRS1-148 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:45

Session 4A: Policy & Privacy
Moderators
avatar for Heidi Julien

Heidi Julien

Chair and Professor, University at Buffalo
digital literacy, information behavior, higher education

Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:45 - 12:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:45

Session 4B: Opinions & Influences
Moderators
avatar for Wayne Leung

Wayne Leung

Digital Communications Officer, Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Canada
Writer, Editor and Communications Professional; Torontonian, Traveller, Techie, Foodie, Humanitarian and devotee of the theatre & performing arts

Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:45 - 12:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:45

Session 4C: Management & Marketing 2
Moderators
avatar for Katie Warfield

Katie Warfield

Faculty, Kwantlen Polytechnic University
Director of the Visual Media Workshop @KwantlenU | Lead researcher of Making Selfies/Making Self | Faculty, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Surrey BC | Katie Warfield is faculty in the Department of Journalism and Communication at Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Surrey BC. She is director of the Visual Media workshop and lead researcher for the Making Selfies/Making Self Research Project, which explores the production and curation of... Read More →

Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:45 - 12:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

! "Organizational Identity, Meaning, and Values: Analysis of Social Media Guideline and Policy Documents"
Authors: Laura Pasquini and Nick Evangelopoulos

With the increasing use of social media by students, researchers, administrative staff, and faculty in post-secondary education (PSE), a number of institutions have developed guideline and policy documents to set standards for social media use. In this study we analyze social media guidelines and policies across 250 PSE institutions from 10 countries using latent semantic analysis. This initial finding produced a list of 36 universal topics. Subsequently, chi-squared tests were employed to identify distribution differences of content-related factors between US and Non-US PSE institutions. This analysis offered a high-level summary of unstructured text data on the topic of social media guidance. The results include a comprehensive list of recommendations for developing social media guidelines and policies, and a database of social media guideline and policy documents for the PSE sector and other related organizations.

Speakers
NE

Nick Evangelopoulos

University of North Texas
avatar for Laura Pasquini

Laura Pasquini

Lecturer/Postdoctoral Researcher, University of North Texas/Royal Roads University
Exploring communities & networks for #OrgLearning and HRD.@UNTCOI Lecturer.@RoyalRoads Postdoctoral Researcher. Past & founding Editor of the @LPQuarterly.On @NACADA Council.#edusocmedia #OER #edtech #highered


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"Moral panic on digital social networks: When privacy issues lead to the bifurcation of media uses"
Author: Nathalie Paton

This paper studies the emergence and renewal of social networks resulting from increased mediatization of social relations linked to the use of new communication technologies. The evolution of relationship dynamics, impacted by the use of participatory media, is studied from the specific context of a form of “bottom-up” regulation, that of moral panic. By proceeding with a French and American comparative analysis of media participation in online social networks sites regarding the same-sex marriage debate, we show how the exposure of private opinions in the public media arena, notably Facebook, leads to the bifurcation of media uses, regardless of the point of view defended and the gap between respective national framings of a same moral dilemma.

Speakers
avatar for Nathalie Paton

Nathalie Paton

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Marseille
My work focuses on the study of media participation in relationship to the formation of self, social groups or public arenas of debate within a range of topics including violence, e-health and activism, via methods typical of digital humanities, mainly online ethnography.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"Privacy online: Knowledge, concerns, and behavior of users, sites managers and policy-makers"
Authors: Avshalom Ginosar and Yaron Ariel

Privacy, according to one traditional definition, is "the claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves, how and to what extent information about them is communicated to others" (Westin, 1967: 7). While violating one's privacy in the offline world has been a source of different types of concerns, the new technologies of the online world enable many new ways for such violations to occur and therefore amplify public concerns. Consequently, both the Internet industries as well as different legal, social and political institutions are being asked to pay more attention to the issue and look for ways to meeting these concerns. 

Two main clusters of relevant studies can be identified in current literature: the first addresses the concerns of Internet users over their privacy being compromised (e.g. Awad & Krishnan, 2006; Paine, Reips, Stieger, Joinson, & Buchanan, 2007). The second deals with issues of policy and regulation regarding violation of privacy on the net (e.g. Birhack & Elkin-Koren, 2011; Fernback & Papacharissi, 2007; Rasmus & Stine, 2013; Tsai, Egelman, Cranor, & Acquisiti, 2011). The research we are undertaking seeks to combine issues from these two clusters of studies. 

Objective: 
We try to understand the connections between four constructs: knowledge about the possibilities to violate privacy on the Internet, awareness of possible risks emerging from violating one's privacy, concerns raised in response to these risks, and behavior that result of these concerns. We investigate views and positions of three relevant groups: Internet users, site' planners and operators, and policy-makers and regulators. 

Methods: 
The study is based on three different surveys, each aimed at one of the three groups. We approached 505 Internet users (a representative sample of the Jewish population in Israel) and of about 100 Israeli sites operators (governmental, public, commercial sites). We intend to address several dozens of policy-makers, regulators, and experts who advised to different formal institutions and committees. 

Each survey consists of dozens of statements related to each of the constructs: knowledge, awareness, concerns, and behavior. The respondents were asked to mark their consent to each statement in a 5-degree likert scale (1- not at all; 5- very much). 

Results: 
The analysis of the users' responses reveals a strong positive connection between user's knowledge and concern and a weaker positive connection between knowledge and behavior. Two explanatory factors found as relevant: first, users do not trust formal institutions that are supposed to protect their privacy; second, users fear of malicious action of those who collect and keep their personal details. As to demography, we found a significant positive correlation between age and concern (elder respondents were more concern) and significant positive connection between education and concern (more educated respondents were more concern). No significant relations were found between concern and the frequency of internet surfing; frequency online social networks use; or the extent of using the net for specific actions such as contents sharing. 

Future Work: 
(1) Analyzing sites managers' responses (we got about 100 responses). 
(2) Collecting data from policy-makers and regulators (and analyzing their responses). 

References: 
Awad, N. F., & Krishnan, M. (2006). The personalization privacy paradox: An empirical evaluation of information transparency and the willingness to be profiled online for personalization. MIS Quarterly, 30(1), 13-28. 
Birnhack, M., & Elkin-Koren, N. (2011). Does law matter online? Empirical evidence on privacy law compliance. Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review, 17, 337-384. 
Fernback, J., & Papacharissi, Z. (2007). Online privacy as legal safeguard: The relationship among consumer, online portal, and privacy policies. New Media & Society, 9(5), 715-734. 
Paine, C., Reips, U., Stieger, S., Joinson, A., & Buchanan, T. (2007). Internet users’ perceptions of ‘privacy concerns’ and ‘privacy actions’. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65(6), 526-536. 
Rasmus, H., & Stine, L. (2013). Regulatory response? tracking the influence of technological developments on privacy regulation in Denmark from 2000 to 2011. Policy & Internet, 3, 289-303. 
Tsai, J. Y., Egelman, S., Cranor, L., & Acquisti, A. (2011). The effect of online privacy information on purchasing behavior: An experimental study. Information Systems Research, 22(2), 254-268. 
Westin, A. F. (1967). Privacy and freedom. Atheneum: New York 

Speakers
avatar for Avshalom Ginosar

Avshalom Ginosar

Senior Lecturer, The Academic College of Yezreel Valley


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"Social Networking Sites: An Empirical Evaluation of the Relationship Between Privacy and User Behavior"
Author: Francisco Grajales

Today’s interconnected democracies have adopted social networking sites faster than policy can adapt to meet the privacy values of their constituents. In the health sector, patients are sharing and managing their personal information on sites similar to Facebook but centred around disease (e.g., The Body for HIV). Through these sites, patients are sharing the medications they use, their respective side effects and their individual responses to treatment, just to name a few examples. 

Although this data sharing behaviour has been shown to make a positive contribution to the patient’s health and wellbeing, policy seldom protects the users who share these data from the retribution that may result when a third party gains access and actions the data that is found on a user’s profile. This information can be a diagnosis, such as depression, or a common symptom, such as recurrent migraines. At stake is not whether the data shared should be used for commercial purposes; rather, it is about how the laws of, for, and by society can delicately balance the needs of capitalism (the sale of goods and services) whilst protecting its ideals - maintaining citizen rights, freedoms and preventing discrimination. This research aims to build a foundation for policymakers to harmonize the tensions surrounding health data privacy from different perspectives - the patient, the law, and the corporation. 

Objective: My dissertation explores the relationship between privacy and social networking site user behaviour. It is an evaluation of: 1) user incentives for sharing data on health-related social networking sites; 2) the relationship between data sharing practices, anonymity, and the perceived risk of future retribution by third parties (employers, insurance companies and government entities); and 3) how policy and data protection legislation may balance the universal human-right to privacy within a capitalistic democracy. 

Methods: A partnership has been established between the University of British Columbia’s Industry Liaison Office and PatientsLikeMe Inc. in Cambridge, MA. Under this partnership, PatientsLikeMe has shared the results of a survey on Privacy measures that was conducted on its users on behalf of the US National Academies of Sciences. Under this agreement, PLM has also shared anonymized user profile data. Data analyses, including descriptive statistics and regression modelling are being conducted using the XLStat software. Results have been ethically validated and will be reported in congruence with the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys. 

Preliminary Results: A total of 2,712 PatientsLikeMe users completed the survey. 2,125 (78%) were from the USA and 2,045 (75%) of them were female. 1,337 (49%) of users did not share their profile with a third party; including spouses, friends, or clinicians. Overall, 1,823 (67%) and 1,361 (61%) of users believed that their profile data would be used to deny them healthcare benefits or would limit job opportunities in the future, respectively. Despite this, 2550 (94%) of users would be willing to share their data anonymously to improve the care of other patients with similar conditions. Users from countries with Universal Healthcare Coverage shared an average of 30% more data on their profiles than their American counterparts. 

Conclusions: These preliminary results strongly suggest that American users share significantly less data than their international counterparts when controlled for quality of life, income, gender and health insurance coverage. This may be due to the fear of retribution by future employers and health insurance companies. Regardless of nationality however, two in every three patients want their data to be used anonymously to improve the care of future patients. Further research will be required to explore whether these attitudes are a direct result of data protection policies in different geographical contexts. 

Speakers
avatar for Francisco Grajales

Francisco Grajales

Google Policy Fellow, ADB


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"Twitter data for urban policy making: an analysis on four European cities"
Authors: Marta Severo, Timothee Giraud and Hugues Pecout

This communication will present the results of a project (called “Big data”) carried out in the context of the European programme ESPON. In this project, we test the interest of using Web 2.0 data for studying issues related to territorial development and cohesion. We focus on the possible uses of large sets of Twitter data for studying European cities. These data are expected to improve the study of the impact of the brand of a city at international and at local level.

Speakers
avatar for Marta Severo

Marta Severo

Associate Professor, Université de Lille 3
Marta Severo is associate professor in Communication at the University of Lille 3 (Geriico laboratory). Her research focuses on digital methods for social sciences and representations of territorial phenomena based on digital data. She coordinates the “media and territory” research group of the International College of Territorial Sciences. She was postdoctoral fellow at the Politecnico of Milan, at Sciences Po Paris and at the CIST in Paris... Read More →



Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"#VapeLife: Understanding Electronic Cigarette Use and Promotion on Instagram"
Authors:  Linnea Laestadius, Megan Meyer and Young Cho

Recent research has made it clear that people are sharing information about their tobacco use on social media (Bromberg, Augustson, & Backinger, 2012; Luo, Zheng, Zeng, & Leischow, 2014; Seidenberg, Rodgers, Rees, & Connolly, 2012). The growth of mobile applications for smart phones has further enabled the sharing of tobacco use opinions and experiences in real time. Since perceptions of peer substance use rates and norms play an important role in tobacco use patterns (Bertholet, et al, 2013), the self-disclosure of, and the exposure to, smoking on social media inherently poses a challenge to tobacco use control campaigns. The ability to interact over social media services may also foster communities built around substance use (Bromberg et al., 2012). Further complicating the social media landscape, corporations have also taken note of the rising popularity of social media services (Ciolli, 2007; Luo et al., 2014). 

Objective: 
We offer a descriptive study of the electronic cigarette (“e-cigarette”) content found on the visual mobile social media platform Instagram in order to highlight: 1) the public health challenge created by this content and 2) the opportunity this content provides for researchers to understand substance use behaviours. For the purposes of this work, e-cigarettes include cigalikes, ego vape-pens, and mod vape devices. We focus on these devices in particular due to their lack of government regulation, rapidly growing popularity, and the role the internet has played in this growth (Emery, Vera, Huang, & Szczypka, 2014). 

Methods: 
We conducted a qualitative content analysis to understand the types of user- and business-generated content related to e-cigarettes on Instagram. First, an overarching count of e-cigarette hashtags was performed on Instagram to determine growth in the volume of this content. Once popular hashtags were identified, “ecig” and the most popular affiliated hashtag “vape” were chosen for sampling. The 60 most recent posts with each hashtag posted on October 17, 2014 were captured for analysis. After excluding images that were removed or made private by January 2015, the remaining posts were coded in terms of user and post type, key themes, and community/identity related hashtags. 

Results: 
Between March 12, 2014 and March 12, 2015, #ecig posts increased from 291,284 to 824,857, while #vape posts increased from 827,445 to 2,859,946. Initial analysis of our sample (n=85) indicated that content was dominated by small e-cigarette brands, vendors, and representatives (n=50). These businesses made strategic use of Instagram to promote their products. Among non-business users (n=33), posts frequently displayed e-cigarette devices and e-juice. Many posts related to technologically advanced vaping concepts (e.g. dripping, sub-ohming) which were previously undocumented in the public health literature. Business and personal users also frequently (n=69) made use of a number of community- and identity-themed hashtags related to e-cigarettes (e.g. #vapelife, #cloudchaser). Additionally, many users utilized hashtags to emphasize the status and significance of the e-cigarette devices themselves, with #VapePorn being particularly common. 

Future Work: 
Further analysis of the data is planned, with a focus on the implications of social media-based communities forming around e-cigarette use. 

References: 
Bertholet, N., Faouzi, M., Studer, J., Daeppen, J.-B., & Gmel, G. (2013). Perception of tobacco, cannabis, and alcohol use of others is associated with one’s own use. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 8(1), 15. 
Bromberg, J. E., Augustson, E. M., & Backinger, C. L. (2012). Portrayal of Smokeless Tobacco in YouTube Videos. Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 14(4), 455–462. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr235 
Ciolli, A. (2007). Joe Camel meets YouTube: Cigarette advertising regulations and user-generated marketing. U. Tol. L. Rev., 39, 121. 
Emery, S. L., Vera, L., Huang, J., & Szczypka, G. (2014). Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms. Tobacco Control, 23 Suppl 3, iii17–25. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051648 
Luo, C., Zheng, X., Zeng, D., & Leischow, S. (2014). Portrayal of electronic cigarettes on YouTube. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1028. doi:10.1136/bmj.e8412 
Seidenberg, A. B., Rodgers, E. J., Rees, V. W., & Connolly, G. N. (2012). Youth access, creation, and content of smokeless tobacco (“dip”) videos in social media. The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 50(4), 334–338. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.09.003 

Speakers
avatar for Linnea Laestadius

Linnea Laestadius

Assistant Professor, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee
avatar for Megan Meyer

Megan Meyer

Research Assistant/PhD Student, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee
PhD student in public health with interest in communications, global health, social media, and communities.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"Factors influencing health-oriented social media use"
Author: Shaohai Jiang

Recent years has witnessed an increasing tendency of social media use for health-related activities. However, research on such usage is still poor. So far, there has been little discussion about what types of factors might influence social media use for health. This study described users and nonusers of social media for health activities in terms of their sociodemographic, technological and health-related variables and tested whether these factors could also serve as predictors of using social media for health activities. The study consisted of a telephone survey of 949 adults who reported experience of using the Internet for health information. Results showed that users and nonusers differed significantly in their education level, race, digital literacy level, Internet use frequency and perceived benefit of seeking online health information. In terms of causal relationships, age, gender, race, digital literacy and perceived benefit were significant predictors of social media use for health activities. Education, income, and Internet use frequency could predict one type of social media use respectively. Health status and perceived risk had no significant relationship with any type of social media use for health. The limitation and implication of this study was also discussed.

Speakers
avatar for Shaohai Jiang

Shaohai Jiang

Ph.D. student, Texas A&M University
Shaohai Jiang is a PhD student at the intersection of health communication and new media studies. His research deals with how Internet use can enhance the communication between health organization, doctor and patient, and ultimately improve patient’s health outcome. He is also interested in health campaign in the Web 2.0 era.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"Fear, Criticism and Awareness – Understanding Sentiment Propagation During the 2014 Ebola Outbreak from Social Media Data"
Authors: Arif Khan, Shahadat Uddin and Nazim Choudhury

Ebola outbreak, one of the major events of 2014, has claimed over 10,000 lives (CDC, 2015) so far. Although started earlier, it gained worldwide attention from September, 2014 when the first case was confirmed in United States (Patwardhan, 2014). Over the next few months’ window, the topic kept dominating in social networks (Househ, 2015) with varying responses. Apart from sharing knowledge and awareness, there was also widespread sentiment of panic, criticism and satire that propagated throughout the platform. Given the complex and longitudinal nature of data, it is therefore important to explore the dynamics of this particular event to understand how people’s sentiments evolve as they share and re-share information in times of crisis like Ebola. 

Objective: This research focuses on understanding the evolution of sentiments following the events of Ebola crisis. We aim to explore this dynamics from three perspectives. Firstly, from actor’s perspective where we like to identify major contributors (e.g., news agency, health organizations and individuals) of information from social network perspectives as well as their structural position within the network. Secondly, we are interested in the longitudinal analysis of sentiment propagation i.e., how fast different sentiments diffuse through the network and the time lag between an actual event occurrence and the time when that reaches most of the followers. Finally, we want to explore spatial impact on sentiments e.g., how they vary within different states or countries. 

Methods: We chose Twitter as social network platform. Related tweets were downloaded with custom software that utilizes web mining and Twitter APIs. We chose three months’ window (September – November, 2014) when related events and responses (i.e., confirmed cases, patient transfers, quarantine and deaths in Europe and United States) were at the peak outside of western Africa (Times, 2015). Data were segmented into entities e.g., text, hashtags, user, geolocation etc. and saved into database. As an ongoing work, we are using sentiment analysis software to identify subjective information. Next, we will use social network analysis methods like centrality and clustering algorithms to find prominent groups or actors within the network. We also applied a set of measures proposed by Uddin et al. (2015) to understand the actor level dynamics of longitudinal network. These measures can identify dynamicity of different sentiments over time. 

Results: The database consists of approximately 1.56 million tweets from 0.6 million users over 3 months. Half of the tweets are from United States followed by U.K., Brazil and Spain. Significant amount of information originated from dedicated accounts on Ebola crisis followed by general media agencies, healthcare organizations and individuals. Although sentiment analysis is still undergoing, initial result suggests that significant proportion of popular tweets have witty or criticizing (related to politics or celebrities) tone rather than sharing fact or information. 

Future Work: We are still applying sentiment analysis to quantify different polarities of tweets. After that, social network based structural and dynamicity measures will be applied. Furthermore, the result should be normalized to remove any bias because not every tweet is made available via Twitter API.

Speakers

Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"Societal and temporal differences in herding behaviour revealed on customer reviews"
Authors: Dongho Choi and Chirag Shah

A variety of social media helps individuals now produce and share their information and knowledge over the online platform much easily. While, as a result, the influence of “word of mouth” is increasing faster, the shared information is not perceived equally by other people. For example, ‘most popular’ news that is highly ranked by previous viewers’ reactions and preference makes influences to following readers a lot more than rarely written news. Previous research indicated that disclosing prior collective opinions affect individual’s decision-making and as well as their perceptions of information, which is called herding effect. 

In the meantime, social media are promoting people to create high quality and quantity information for the stock of knowledge in their communities, such as Elite reviewers of Yelp.com. The assumption in this kind of user classification is that so-called Elite reviewers make substantially greater influences on other users’ information behaviours. 

Objective: 
We aim to to see if there exists the difference in herding effect by different groups of people, that and if so, to explore how does the herding behaviour look like in different communities and/or societies. We have three research questions as follows: (1) To what extent, if any, do users in different societies show different patterns of herding effect?; (2) To what extent, if any, do different product/service categories affect the herding effect?; and (3) In terms of temporal dynamics, has herding effect been changing over time? 

Methods: 
Yelp’s recently publicized data set, which includes more than 1.6 million reviews about businesses in 10 cities across 4 countries, is used to observe the rating histories of particular businesses. In addition to the rating data, other factors of reviews written by different groups of people will be extracted. More specifically, the factors extracted from reviews of elite and non-elite reviewers are trained and tested to predict current rating based on the previous history. Various classification model are used to compare the performance of our model, during which different weights are assigned to two review sets to find out the optimal weight distribution over different locations and time for consideration. 

Results: 
From the preliminary study, we have found that one of the classifiers, nearest neighbor classifier show the best prediction results when we weigh more influences on elites’ reviews than non-elites’ reviews (i.e., 0.7 for elites’ reviews vs. 0.3 for non-elites’), for the sample reviews from particular businesses. We are analyzing data from popular businesses in selected categories, and in different cities in the dataset. We expect to see another societal and temporal differences from this. 

Future Work: 
We will consider more factors, such as textual data and social network data, as well as time and location data into the model in order to understand how the influential people, or their influences work differently in different societies. Also, we will validate the findings with other customer reviews data sets or different types of social media, such as Twitter, to see if the locational and temporal differences still exist. 


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"The characteristics and influence of Twitter users who form public opinions about China"
Author: Debao Xiang

The study uses an empirical methodology to analyze the characteristics and influence of Twitter users who form public opinions about China. The paper finds that with respect to individual users, organizations are dominant forces on Twitter that are generating public opinions about China. Interest groups, media, enterprises and non-governmental organizations are the main organizations. Media organizations, particularly commercial media, play a large role in generating public opinions on Twitter about China. Users involved in Chinese-related discussion topics mostly come from the USA, Canada, China, Japan and other countries. In terms of influence, individuals are higher than organizations. Among individual users, media practitioners have a high and active degree of influence. Traditional media hold the highest influence among users from organizations.

Speakers
DX

Debao Xiang

shanghai,china, shanghai international studies univerisity
new media, public opinions


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

“Change My View”: Detecting Persuasive Text in Online Discussions"
Authors: Taraneh Khazaei, Lu Xiao and Robert Mercer

It has been long established that there is a correlation between the dialog behaviour of participants in communicative settings and whether they are perceived persuasive by other participants. Due to the relatively recent explosion of social media and the lack of annotated data, there is no established body of theoretical foundations for dialog behaviour and persuasiveness in such settings. In addition, there only exist a few analytical studies investigating such potential links. In this project, we aim to explore the linguistic characteristics of a communication that make a piece of text to be perceived persuasive. We draw on theories that have been developed to study language and persuasion in monologues as well as small group and one-to-one spoken conversations and extend them for online large-scale deliberations. 

Speakers
avatar for Taraneh Khazaei

Taraneh Khazaei

PhD Candidate, University of Western Ontario
I am a PhD student in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Western Ontario. I hold a Masters degree in Computer Science from Memorial University of Newfoundland, where I researched search user interfaces and human-computer information retrieval. | My current research is primarily focused on text mining and analytics in the context of online social networks. In particular, I am working on the analysis and detection of written... Read More →
LX

Lu Xiao

The University of Western Ontario, Canada


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

! "Emotions on Facebook A Content Analysis of Mexico’s Starbucks Page"
Authors: Luceli Ponce and Benoit Cordelier

In this paper, we take the emotion as an essential element of interaction between members of a brand community, in a social networking site. The emotions play an important role in the interaction, since they create narratives in the way of a speech, vocabulary, images, symbols, rituals, etc. (Mc Alexandre, Schouten and Koenig, 2002; Le Breton, 2010). Through a mixed method approach heavily based on a content analysis, we highlighted the emotional elements used for interaction within a community brand. In order to achieve our goals, we analyzed 77 publications and 13,043 comments from members of the brand community “Starbucks Mexico” on Facebook, reported between January and June 2014. The contribution, that we present here, includes the detection of positive and negative emotions expressed on Facebook, as well as the level of participation that they generate, and the distinction of elements used to express emotions. We found that people interact more through emotions related to happiness, such as love, passion, and desire. But also, negative emotions like anger and longing are often used to generate participation.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

! "Prized assets for web tracking"
Author: Sylvia E. Peacock

Pinpointing the group of Canadians who are affected most by web tracking and personal data storage. Background: Due to the lack of regulations and online information market failure, online personal data extraction is ubiquitous. Little knowledge exists about who the users mainly affected by personal data extraction are. Method: Two large population surveys, the CIUS 2010 and 2012 offer comprehensive and comparable measures to gauge the intensity and extent of people’s online activities. An Internet intensity index is proposed to measure Canadian online activity scaled between zero (offline) and 100 (intensely active). Results: Increasingly mature, well-off and educated men and women are captured in the big data bases of online companies that pursue online tracking. Other population segments appear less affected. Conclusions: From a marketing perspective, the targeted group is the most coveted of all consumer groups, thus corporate self-regulation seems even more unlikely in the light of the current results. The overuse of the Internet commons for the purpose of personal user data extraction might lead to an underuse of its connective possibilities. Today’s non-regulated web tracking might present a first indication of online companies steering towards an online tragedy of the commons.

Speakers
avatar for Sylvia E. Peacock

Sylvia E. Peacock

Lecturer, York University
Web tracking. What do you know about it? How do you deal with it? What do you think about web tracking? From what I see, it seems to be (online) market failure.



Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"A Framework for Managing Corporate Social Media Crisis"
Authors: Jannie Iskou Sørensen, Raghava Rao Mukkamala, Abid Hussain and Ravi Vatrapu

Social media crises pose significant challenges for organizations in terms of their rapid rate of spread and potential negative associations in terms of brand parameters and sustained negative advocacy by users. This paper reports on a multiple case study of four different social media crises that is informed by the crisis communication theories and grounded in the methodologies of netnography and big social data analytics. Findings show that voluminous but also transient nature of social media crises, different strategies employed by the organizations to manage the crises and their results, and a diversity of collective user actions. Based on the findings, we recommend that companies should choose a response strategy that is suitable for the type of crisis they are experiencing as well as the industry sector they belong to. We apply the findings to McKinsey’s 7S framework to offer a preliminary framework for managing social media crises.

Speakers
AH

Abid Hussain

Copenhagen Business School
RR

Raghava Rao Mukkamala

IT University of Copenhagen
avatar for Ravi Vatrapu

Ravi Vatrapu

Professor, Copenhagen Business School


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"Examining the social network of Canadian national sport organizations"
Authors: Michael Naraine and Milena Parent

While social media “technologies are being embraced by various sport organizations” (Blaszka, Burch, Frederick, Clavio, & Walsh, 2012, p. 436), there is a notable absence in the literature regarding how not-for-profit organizations and, more specifically, national sport organizations (NSO), have dealt with these developments. While Abeza and O’Reilly (2014) did document the communications of this group, there is a lack of understanding of the stakeholders that comprise a NSO’s social media network. This paper seeks to explore the social network of NSOs to determine how stakeholders are positioned and advantaged within said network. By doing so, practitioners and social media-centred sport scholars would have greater recognition of which stakeholders are able to redistribute or distort messages to other actors in the network and, more importantly, which stakeholders should be targeting their message to given strength and ability to maximize impressions to other followers. The study was delineated to Twitter, given the access capabilities of the platform, and the saliency of Twitter-centred sport research (cf. Abeza, O’Reilly, & Nadeau, 2014). The 61 NSOs listed on the Canadian Heritage website were stratified into five categories based upon their Twitter follower counts (i.e., high, mid-high, mid-low, low, and not applicable). After this stratification, two NSOs from the low group were randomly selected for study (the low group was chosen given the resources available). Both Fencing Canada and Luge Canada were cross-examined to determine follow ties amongst all actors in their respective networks. Ties were noted in an Excel spreadsheet using NodeXL and imported into UCINET 6 (Borgatti, Everett, & Freeman, 2002). UCINET 6 revealed several statistical measures of the networks including degree centrality, Freeman betweenness, and Eigenvector centrality. Data was also visually examined through NetDraw (Borgatti, 2002), a network visualization tool to map the actors within the NSOs network vis-à-vis sociograms. Results for Fencing Canada will be presented at the conference, as data is still being collected for Luge Canada with a vast number of actors in that network (n = 1008). The results from Fencing Canada highlight that well-connected actors in the social network tend to be current athletes and major sport organizations (e.g., international governing bodies). While these stakeholders may be difficult to target to further disseminate a tweet (i.e., through a RT) because of their status and passive activity, Canadian NSOs should consider crafting their messages with these stakeholders tagged (i.e., mentioned) to increase the chances of further dissemination. An exploratory work of this nature sets the stage for cross-national comparatives of NSO networks to determine similarities, differences, and cross-reference strength of stakeholders. Future work can also consider interviews with social media managers of these organizations to determine their perceptions of well-positioned, centralized actors in their network.

Speakers
avatar for Michael Naraine

Michael Naraine

PhD Candidate, University of Ottawa
I am a SSHRC doctoral fellowship holder studying national sport organizations and new media. My research agenda also includes strategic management, social network analysis, and sport governance/stakeholder management.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

10:46

"Viral video marketing campaigns in a social media ecosystem: the rise of ephemeral online communities"
Authors: Antonios Kaniadakis and Christos Karpasitis

Social media (social networking sites, blogs, content communities etc) constitute the current “face” of the Internet. Our state of knowledge on social media engagement and participation, however, appears quite fragmented (Bechmann & Lomborg, 2012). This creates inconsistencies in our understanding of online agency, especially in a social media context. To address this problem, we suggest a shift away from traditional distinctions (i.e. producers-consumers, designers-users, creators-audiences, individuals-organisations) that currently dominate studies on social media and instead approach social media as an “ecosystem” (Hanna et al, 2011; Kallinikos & Mariategui, 2011). Such a shift, we argue, creates a broader analytical scope for a more complete theorisation of social media user engagement and participation. 

Objective: 
The main objective of this study is to explore the mechanisms and social, cultural and economic forces that mobilize and “perform” (Callon, 2007) the social media ecosystem. As a more specific empirical context, we look at viral video marketing campaigns and trying to collect new evidence that would help us understand what is their role in engaging and performing the social media ecosystem. In addition, we ask in what ways are viral video marketing campaigns helping us understand online agency and social media engagement and participation? 

Methods: 
The methods used for this study fall under the umbrella of what may be understood as online or digital ethnography (Hine, 2000; Kozinets, 2002). Our analysis focuses on specific viral video marketing campaigns in an effort to account for the social, cultural and economic context around social media use and provide an interpretive context for our data. Specific data collection techniques include: monitoring social media conversations (i.e user comments under videos) as well as, the broader social and cultural activity around marketing campaigns in multiple social media platforms (blogs, facebook, twitter, etc). Our investigation focuses on two campaigns: the First Kiss by WREN studios and Monty the Penguin by John Lewis. 

Results: 
Initial results point to an understanding of viral video marketing campaigns as temporal socio-cultural and economic phenomena. Their form, characteristics and life-cycle depend on the establishment - by social media users - of “meaningful associations” between the contents of the specific campaign (i.e. contents of a video) and multiple, overlapping cultural contexts, belief systems, as well as, with concurrently unfolding circumstances. 
Because of the temporality of the phenomenon, user participation and engagement in viral video marketing campaigns is organised around what we call “ephemeral online communities”, which work towards shaping the meaning(s) and outcome(s) of a campaign. 
In regards to agency, this research has implications for both what we may have traditionally understood as two distinct categories of actors: a) the campaigners (i.e. companies advertising their products, media and advertising companies etc) and b) the audiences targeted by the campaigns (i.e. the critical mass of potential consumers). More specifically, this research suggests that in a social media context, there is a blurring of the boundaries between these two types. As a result, there is also a blurring of the purpose and objective of the campaign and the interests/agendas of the agents involved. 

Future Work: 
Ephemeral communities around viral video marketing campaigns challenge more traditional understandings of online agency, participation and engagement. Future studies of the social media ecosystem should aim to strengthen the conceptual, theoretical and methodological toolkit of social media researchers in their efforts to re-define the field.
 
References: 
Bechmann, A. & Lomborg, S. (2012), “Mapping actor roles in social media: different perspectives on value creation in theories of user participation”, New Media & Society, 15(5): 765-781 
Callon, M. (2007), “What does it mean to say that economics is performative?” In D. MacKenzie, F. Muniesa, & L. Siu (Eds.), Do economists make markets? On the performativity of Economics (pp. 311-357). Princeton University Press. 
Hanna, R., Rohm, A., Crittenden, V., L., (2011), “We’re all connected: The power of social media ecosystem”, Business Horizons 54 (pp. 265-273). 
Hine, C. (2000), Virtual Ethnography, SAGE Publications Ltd. 
Kallinikos, J. & Mariátegui, J.C. (2011) Video as Digital Object: Production and Distribution of Video Content in the Internet Media Ecosystem, The Information Society: An International Journal, 27:5, 281-294 
Kozinets, R. V. (2002), “The Field Behind the Screen: Using Netnography for Marketing Research in Online Communities,” Journal of Marketing Research, 39: 61-72 

Speakers
avatar for Antonios Kaniadakis

Antonios Kaniadakis

Lecturer(Assistant Prof), Queen Mary, University of London


Wednesday July 29, 2015 10:46 - 12:15
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

12:15

Lunch (Not Included/Self Organized)
Wednesday July 29, 2015 12:15 - 13:30
Various

13:30

Session 5A: Analytics & Mining
Moderators
avatar for Ann Pegoraro

Ann Pegoraro

Associate Professor, Director - Institute for Sport Marketing, Laurentian University
If you are interested in social media research - let's talk!

Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:30 - 15:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:30

Session 5B: Academic
Moderators
avatar for Dr. Chandana Unnithan

Dr. Chandana Unnithan

Faculty - Information Systems, Victoria University
I am a faculty member in the field of Information Systems Management with Victoria University, Australia (and also teach at Charles Darwin University). I teach IT Project management, Enterprise Business Applications, and Professional Practice. My current research focus is on social media analytics; Web 2.0 & 3.0; and women in ICT. I am an active part of the Action Team 6 Follow up Initiative, which aims to use spatial technologies for public... Read More →

Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:30 - 15:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:30

Session 5C: Models and Methods
Moderators
avatar for Bree Mcewan

Bree Mcewan

Associate Professor, Western Illinois University
Researching intersection of interpersonal and computer-mediated communication. Would love to chat with people about measures (recently published Facebook Relational Maintenance Measure and have Affordances measure in the works) and linguistic analyses (working on some LIWC stuff) Also working on 2016-2017 sabbatical application and looking to spend it in Toronto so if you know of research/teaching/visiting scholar opportunities....

Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:30 - 15:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

! "Social Media Analytics and Research Test-bed (SMART Dashboard)"
Authors: Ming-Hsiang Tsou, Chin-Te Jung, Christopher Allen, Jiue-An Yang, Jean-Mark Gawron, Brian H. Spitzberg and Su Han

We developed a social media analytics and research testbed (SMART) dashboard for monitoring Twitter messages and tracking the diffusion of information in different cities. SMART dashboard is an online geo-targeted search and analytics tool, including an automatic data processing procedure to help researchers to 1) search tweets in different cities; 2) filter noise (such as removing redundant retweets and using machine learning methods to improve precision); 3) analyze social media data from a spatiotemporal perspective, and 4) visualize social media data in various aspects (such as weekly and monthly trends, top URLs, top retweets, top mentions, or top hashtags). By monitoring social messages in geo-targeted cities, we hope that SMART dashboard can assist researchers to investigate and monitor various topics, such as flu outbreaks, drug abuse, and Ebola epidemics at the municipal level.

Speakers
JM

Jean Mark Gawron

Honcho, San Diego State University
Computational linguistics, homophily via language, studying social groups via language.
BS

Brian Spitzberg

San Diego State University
avatar for Ming-Hsiang Tsou

Ming-Hsiang Tsou

Professor, San Diego State Universtity
Dr. Ming-Hsiang (Ming) Tsou is a Professor in the Department of Geography, San Diego State University (SDSU) and the Director of Center for Human Dynamics in the Mobile Age (HDMA). His research interests are in Human Dynamics, Social Media, Big Data, Visualization, Internet Mapping, Web GIS, Mobile GIS, Cartography, and K-12 GIS education. Tsou received a NSF Interdisciplinary Behavioral and Social Science Research (IBSS) award for... Read More →


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

! "Social Set Analysis: Four Demonstrative Case Studies"
Authors: Ravi VatrapuRaghava Rao Mukkamala, Abid Hussain, Niels Buus Lassen, René Madsen and Benjamin Flesch

This paper argues that for big social data analytics of facebook or twitter data, the basic premise of social network analysis that social reality is constituted by dyadic relations and that social interactions are determined by structural properties of networks is neither necessary nor sufficient. However, there exist no other holistic computational social science approach beyond the relational sociology and graph theory of social network analysis. To address this limitation, this paper presents an alternative holistic approach to big social data analytics called social set analysis. Based on the sociology of associations and the mathematics of classical, fuzzy and rough set theories, this paper proposes a research program to design, develop and evaluate social set analytics in terms of fundamentally novel formal models, predictive methods and visual analytics tools for big social data. Four demonstrative case studies employing social set analysis covering the range of descriptive, predictive, visual and prescriptive analytics are presented and briefly discussed.

Speakers
AH

Abid Hussain

Copenhagen Business School
RR

Raghava Rao Mukkamala

IT University of Copenhagen
avatar for Ravi Vatrapu

Ravi Vatrapu

Professor, Copenhagen Business School


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

"A Study of the Distribution of News-Related Tweets Over Geographic and Time Dimensions"
Authors: Ghada Amoudi and Carolyn Watters

Twitter is an active social network for news sharing. Our aim is to investigate relationships between the spread of news and the data elements one can associate with individual tweets, including, news type, geographic locations of users, and characteristics (retweets, links, hashtags and sentiment) within the body of the tweets.

Speakers
avatar for Ghada Amoudi

Ghada Amoudi

PhD Student, Dalhousie University
PhD student in the field of social media analysis.
CW

Carolyn Watters

Dalhousie University


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

"Crime Trend Prediction Using Social Data"
Authors: Masoud Makrehchi and Somayyeh Aghababaei

In this study we present how user-generated content in social media can be leveraged in crime trend prediction. We introduce a topic-based model for predicting crime trend. While conventional trend prediction methods are limited to availability of labelled data, our proposed model generates training data without human interventions by labeling with the background knowledge inferred from the domain. A temporal topic identification model was proposed to capture the most “novel” topics with addressing topics evolution. The results of experiments reveal the correlation between inferred topics and crime index changes. While predictability is high in some specific crime types, it could be variant depends on the incidents. In overall, the study provides insight into the impacts of social data in providing predictive indicators for real world problems.

Speakers
avatar for Somayyeh (Bahar) Aghababaei

Somayyeh (Bahar) Aghababaei

PhD student, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT)
I am a second year PhD student at UOIT, where I am advised by Dr. Masoud Makrehchi. I am broadly interested in semi-supervised learning, domain adaptation, and transfer learning, and their applications in link prediction, language modeling, socio-economic trend prediction, sentiment analysis, and role detection.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

"Altmetrics in Academe: Bottom up or Policy Driven?"
Authors: Laurie Bonnici and Heidi Julien

Background: Research querying the attitudes of administrators of Library and Information Science (LIS) programs indicates that altmetrics, which are new methods of gauging scholarly impact, appear to be gaining some ground in the field. However, official tenure and promotion policies and practices remain relatively traditional both at the unit and broader university level. Conservative academic culture, often driven by tenured faculty committee efforts, may provide one explanation for delaying what appears to be the inevitable incorporation of altmetrics into tenure and promotion decisions. Typical diffusion of an innovation occurs at the action level. Thus, junior faculty may be engaging with altmetrics data in the documentation and quantification of research activities as these tools have become mainstream. 

Objective: This paper reports on an ongoing study of altmetrics in academe, which started with a survey of Deans, Directors, and Chairs of LIS programs (Julien & Bonnici, 2013), followed by an analysis of social media profiles of representative faculty members in the field (Bonnici & Julien, 2014). A subsequent phase analyzed official tenure and promotion policies at institutions hosting LIS programs, as well as practices used to analyze impact for tenure and promotion purposes (Julien & Bonnici, 2014). These studies of the use of altmetrics in LIS tenure and promotion practices provided a well-rounded picture for one discipline within academe. The current phase expands the scope of the study to the broader academic community. 

Methods: Faculty and doctoral students across a wide range of institutions and disciplines are being surveyed for their attitudes about the use of altmetrics to support promotion and tenure processes. Analyses of the data involve within- and between- discipline, as well as within- and between- group approaches. Interpretation of the data seeks to determine if: 
1.The attitudes of faculty and doctoral students on measuring scholarly impact align; and, 
2.The inclusion of altmetrics data will be voluntary or driven by policy. 

Analysis seeks to determine if LIS leads academe in favourable consideration of altmetrics data to measure scholarly productivity. 
Results: Initial results suggest that faculty may be open to considering altmetrics in the promotion review process. Attitudes garnered from doctoral students may provide perspective on the diffusion process in the application of altmetrics in the measurement of scholarly productivity. Data collection is ongoing and results will be presented at the conference. Although preliminary investigation indicates some consideration of altmetrics in the faculty review process in LIS, the expertise of the discipline may place LIS scholars at the forefront of diffusion of scholarly productivity measurement and subsequent policy development in the academy.  

Future Work: The authors speculate that the culture of a younger generation of scholars, who embrace social media applications broadly, may impact the culture of the academy across disciplines. Time, as a variable as well as a concept in Diffusion of Innovation Theory, will frame the next step of research. Pre-tenure faculty and faculty seeking promotion to full professor will be interviewed to determine the impact of time on engagement in altmetrics strategies to promote research. 

References: 
Julien, H., & Bonnici, L. (2013). Sooner or later? The diffusion and adoption of social media metrics to measure scholarly productivity in LIS faculty. Presented at the 2013 International Conference on Social Media and Society, Halifax, NS, Canada, September 14-15. 

Bonnici, L., & Julien, H. (2014). Altmetrics: An entrepreneurial approach to assessing impact on scholarship and professional practice. Presented at the annual conference of the Association for Library and Information Science Education, Philadelphia, January 21-24. 

Julien, H., & Bonnici, L. (2014). Altmetrics in Library and Information Science: Trickle or Tsunami?” Presented at the 2014 International Conference on Social Media and Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, September 27-28. 

Speakers
LB

Laurie Bonnici

Associate Professor, The University of Alabama
University of Alabama, United States
avatar for Heidi Julien

Heidi Julien

Chair and Professor, University at Buffalo
digital literacy, information behavior, higher education


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

"Communities of attention’ around journal papers: who is tweeting about scientific publications?"
Authors: Stefanie HausteinTimothy Bowman and Rodrigo Costas

Background: 
‘Altmetrics’ have been introduced as a way to capture scientific output and impact beyond papers and citations based on traces on various social media platforms (Priem, Taraborelli, Groth, & Neylon, 2010), of which Twitter is believed to have a particular potential to reflect societal impact of research. The analysis and application of various altmetrics such as tweets to scientific papers, however, still lack adequate interpretative frameworks mainly because the processes behind the metrics are not yet fully understood. Currently each tweet is counted equally on platforms such as Altmetric.com or ImpactStory and studies tend to ignore user type and tweet content, although tweets have been shown to range from serious discussions to humour and self-promotion to automated mentions (Haustein et al., 2015). 

Objective: 
Communities of attention around scientific publications on Twitter are identified based on engagement and exposure of users. Engagement is measured as the degree to which the tweet text differs from the title of the tweeted paper. Exposure refers to the potential audience of the tweet as measured by the number of the user’s followers.

Methods: 
Publications from 2012 covered by Web of Science were matched to tweets (until June 2014, excluding retweets) recorded by Altmetric.com via DOI resulting in 660,149 tweets, 237,222 tweeted papers, and 125,083 Twitter users. Engagement was calculated based on the dissimilarity between the tweet text (excluding user names and URLs) and the title of the tweeted document. User data (including the number of followers representing exposure) was collected from Altmetric.com and the Twitter API.
Four user categories were defined, classifying users into four quadrants A, B, C and D according to engagement and exposure values above and below the median of the whole dataset (Figure 1). Statistics based on the tweeting behaviour of users were calculated for each of the categories. The connections between 708 users with more than 100 publications based on co-mentions of the same papers were visualized in a network graph in Figure 1. 

Results: 
Users in the four categories differ according to tweeting behavior (Figure 1). Users in A have the highest mean tweets per day (based on all tweets) and those in D tweet more about scientific papers (typical for bots identified by Haustein et al. (2015)), while users in A and B discuss publications with slightly higher relative citation rates. 

Future Work: 
Categorizing users by engagement and exposure allows for more nuanced and meaningful indicators differentiating between types of tweets. Users of each category will be further analyzed including an analysis of Twitter account descriptions. We suspect science communicators to be prominent in category A, scientists in B, journal and publisher accounts in C, and bots in D.

Speakers
avatar for Stefanie Haustein

Stefanie Haustein

Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Montreal
I am a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Montreal (Canada) and a visiting lecturer at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (Germany). | My work currently focuses on social media in scholarly communication and making sense of so-called "altmetrics" and is supported by a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. | I hold a Master’s degree in history, American linguistics and literature and information science and a PhD in... Read More →


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

"Emerging Technologies that drive online collaboration"
Authors: Rebecca HogueJeffrey M Keefer, Lenandlar Singh, Ron Leunissen, Apostolos Koutropoulos, Sarah Honeychurch, Keith Hamon and Maha Bal

Background: 
Technologies are constantly changing. In recent years, we have seen disruption in education caused by mobile and cloud technologies (Johnson et al., 2014). These new technologies are making it possible for scholars to collaborate in new ways. The NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Higher Education Education suggests that one of the long term trends in higher education is increased cross-institution collaboration (Johnson et al, 2015, p.10). One of the challenges that prevent increased collaboration is the near-term need for increased digital literacies. Several groups of scholars associated with the 2014 Rhizomatic Learning MOOC (Cormier, 2014) have demonstrated successful cross-institutional and cross-cultural collaboration in the form of collaborative academic papers and conference presentations. 

Objective: 
The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the ways in which various subgroups of the #rhizo14 & #rhizo15 communities have collaborated across countries, continents, cultures, and institutions to create academic papers and conference presentations. 

Methods: 
This study uses the lens of actor network theory (ANT) to examine collaborations and the technologies that best support them. ANT is a means by which to examine the multiplicity of ties within a network and attempt to make sense of the “difficult ambivalences, messy objects, multiple overlapping worlds and apparent contradictions that are embedded in so many educational issues” (Fenwick and Edwards,2010). Here we use it as a way of dissecting and describing how different technologies influenced our collaborations and our community. The study begins with a mapping out of collaborations each of the authors participated in. We then use collaborative technologies (e.g. Google Docs, Google Hangouts, & Email) to further explore the technologies that enabled or disabled our collaborations (not all attempts at using technologies was successful). This collaboration itself becomes a collaborative lens that is included in the study. 

Results: 
Our initial explorations indicate the following technologies were used (or attempted) to help enable collaboration. The tools themselves can be categorized based upon what their primary purpose is:

(1) Group communication: Google Hangout, Email, Twitter, Facebook Groups, Doodle
(2) Paper & Presentation generation: Google Docs, Google Slides, Prezi, VoiceThread, Blogs
(3) Information management: Google Drive, Google Sheets
(4) Physical devices: Mac Laptop, PC Laptop, iPad, Nexus Tablet, iPhone, Android Phone

In addition, many of the authors used personal blogs as a platform for discussion (Bali, 2015; Hamon, 2015a; Hamon, 2015b; Honeychurch, 2015; Keefer, 2015a; Keefer, 2015b; Koutropoulos, 2015; Singh, 2015). Given the limited time, we will focus our presentation on three technologies - Facebook Groups, Google Docs, and Email.
Each technology affords different ways of communicating, and as such very different modes of interaction. Over time, we negotiated ‘norms’ about which technology to use for which type of communication. In addition, some of the technologies became limiting as collaborators with limited bandwidth were not able to fully contribute. For example, when video was added to collaborations, some collaborators were not comfortable or not able to participate fully (Bali & Meier, 2014).

The social media technologies (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus) have created an overlap between our professional and private lives. This overlap has allowed us to become more connected, learning about different aspects of each other, more personal aspects, which then enables us to connect on a different level that goes beyond being purely colleagues. 
In addition, the nature of these participatory technologies means that we are collaborating on a more intense level. It becomes a lot easier for edits to be made and words to intermix to the point that no one person can know who wrote what. Words that begin as a contribution by one person are melded together to become contributions of the collective.

Future Work: 
This study is a work-in-progress. The co-authors of this study have worked on numerous collaborative projects over the last year, each of these are being examined to help us better understand the ways technology enables us to better collaborate as cross cultural scholars. 
With all emerging technology studies, the work never has an ending. As new technologies emerge and existing technologies improve, there are new opportunities to explore how they might enable better collaboration.

References:

Bali, M. (2015, May 11). Google docs collaborations: An amateur attempt to apply ANT analysis. [Weblog] Retrieved from: http://blog.mahabali.me/blog/educational-technology-2/google-docs-collaborations-an-amateur-attempt-to-apply-ant-analysis/
Bali, M., and Meier, B. (March 4, 2014). An Affinity for Asynchronous Learning. Retrieved from http://www.hybridpedagogy.com/journal/affinity-asynchronous-learning/
Fenwick, T., & Edwards, R. (2010). Actor-Network Theory in Education. New York.: Taylor & Francis Group. 

Hamon (May 18, 2015a) ANT via Dudhwala: #rhizo15.[weblog] Retrieved from http://idst-2215.blogspot.com/2015/05/ant-via-dudhwala-rhizo15.html  
Hamon (May 25, 2015b) How Does rhizoANT Work? [weblog] Retrieved from http://idst-2215.blogspot.com/2015/05/how-does-rhizoant-work.html
Honeychurch, S. (May 23, 2015) Google Docs and ANT [weblog] http://www.nomadwarmachine.co.uk/2015/05/23/google-docs-and-ant/

Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., & Freeman, A. (2015). NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Higher Education Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. 

Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., & Freeman. (2014). The NMC Horizon Report: 2014 Higher Education Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. 

Keefer, J. M. (2015a, May 23). A Rhizomatic ANT In Germany [weblog]. Retrieved from: http://silenceandvoice.com/2015/05/23/a-rhizomatic-ant-in-germany/

Keefer, J. M. (2015b, May 25). Using Google via a German Actor-Network [weblog]. Retrieved from: http://silenceandvoice.com/2015/05/25/using-google-via-a-german-actor-
network/

Koutropoulos, A. (2015, May 22, 2015). Swarn the Google Doc, or so says the ANT [weblog]. Retrieved from: http://idstuff.blogspot.com/2015/05/swarn-google-doc-or-so-says-ant.html
Singh, L. (2015, May 24). Actor-Network Theory and Google docs [Web log post]. Retrieved from: https://idleclicks.wordpress.com/2015/05/24/actor-network-theory-and-google-docs/

Speakers
avatar for Maha Bali

Maha Bali

Associate Professor of Practice, The American University in Cairo
I'm a MOOCaholic and writeaholic, passionate about open, connected learning. Co-founder of virtuallyconnecting.org (join us during #dlrn) and edcontexts.org) write for us!) and columnist/editor at Hybrid Pedagogy (you probably already know us)
avatar for Rebecca Hogue

Rebecca Hogue

PhD Candidate, University of Ottawa
I’m Rebecca J Hogue (@rjhogue). I’m a blogger (http://rjh.goingeast.ca, http://bcbecky.com, and http://goingeast.ca), a scholar, an educator, and aspiring writer. I'm a PhD Candidate at the University of Ottawa and an Associate Lecturer at the University of Massachusetts-Boston. I teach Emerging Technologies and Instructional Design online. My research and innovation interests are in the development of health literacy through peer-to-peer... Read More →
SH

Sarah Honeychurch

University of Glasgow
avatar for Jeffrey M. Keefer

Jeffrey M. Keefer

Director of Training & Knowledge Management (Urban Parks) + Educational Researcher + Professor, New York University & The Trust for Public Land
Director of Training & Knowledge Management (Urban Parks) + Educational Researcher + Professor = Actor-Network Theory + Liminality + Connected Learning


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

"Interdisciplinary Teams in Social Media Research: Challenges, Possibilities and the Role of Policy"
Authors: Anabel Quan-Haase, Lori McCay-Peet and Kim Martin

Background: 
At the center of debates around motivations for creating interdisciplinary research (IDR) teams lies the belief that “putting large teams of diverse researchers together who have a common goal will lead to groundbreaking coherent research findings” (Balakrishna, et al., 2011). Research questions may be addressed by a lone scholar or a scholarly team working within a single discipline. However, complex problems do not always conform to disciplines, which are somewhat arbitrarily constructed. As the complexity of research problems increases and with this their significance, there is a greater need for IDR approaches because these problems require the integration of multiple methods, theoretical perspectives, expertise, and knowledge. In terms of social media, this raises a number of questions: What challenges do social media IDR teams face? What opportunities does IDR present? And given the challenges and opportunities, what policies are needed to support social media IDR? 

Objective: 
The objectives of this paper are threefold. First, to demonstrate the importance of engaging in a discussion about the value of interdisciplinarity in the social media research community to avoid reinventing techniques and approaches that have worked in other interdisciplinary fields. Second, the paper aims to identify challenges and opportunities that result from IDR teams to help inform social media IDR. Finally, we take a close look at current policy to analyze its impact on the building of IDR teams. 

Methods: 
We conducted a comprehensive literature review, integrating research from the field of interdisciplinary studies with studies on networked scholarship. Our approach also included an analysis of how current research funding and academic policies impact the building of IDR teams in the field of social media scholarship.  

Results: 
We found interdisciplinary teams face a myriad of challenges, including developing needed technical expertise, providing discipline appropriate graduate student training, issues with data management, and stark differences in the use of theories and methods among disciplines. Many of these challenges, however, also present important opportunities. For example, while the leveraging of knowledge and skills within interdisciplinary teams is difficult (Aragon et al., 2012, n.p.), if successfully implemented this can have a significant impact on research outcomes and graduate student training. Current policy within universities and funding bodies does not fully reflect the complexity of interdisciplinary research. The main barrier to good policy development is a lack of awareness of the challenges and opportunities inherent in the building of IDR teams. There is also a dearth of knowledge on the best practices of interdisciplinary research in the context of social media. 

Future Work: 
Three gaps were identified. First, ethnographic work is necessary to discern the day-to-day working practices of IDR teams in the context of social media. Second, an analysis of current policy is needed to learn about the role of IDR teams in promoting the training of graduate students. Third, we identified a tension between challenges and opportunities in IDR teams. Theoretical and empirical work can help determine how challenges in interdisciplinary social media research can potentially result in innovative academic work if successfully exploited. 

References: 
Aragon, P., J.G., N., Kaltenbrunner, A., Kappler, K., Laniado, D., Ruiz de Querol, R., Ullod, C., & Volkovich, Y. (2012). Bridging the gap: A reflection on an interdisciplinary approach to social media research. In 21st International World Wide Web Conference (WWW2012) (pp. 1–6). 

Balakrishnan, A.D., Kiesler, S., Cummings, J. N., & Zadeh, R. (2011). Research team integration: What it is and why it matters. In Proceedings of the ACM 2011 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work - CSCW ’11. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 523-532523–532. doi:10.1145/1958824.1958905 

Speakers
avatar for Lori McCay-Peet

Lori McCay-Peet

PhD Candidate, Dalhousie University
Dalhousie University, Canada
avatar for Anabel Quan-Haase

Anabel Quan-Haase

Associate Professor, University of Western Ontario
Looking forward to hearing about novel methods in the study of social media, new trends, and social activism. I am also curious about interdisciplinary teams and how they work. Any success stories, best practices or failures?


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

"Using Facebook in College Admissions: A Longitudinal Study"
Author: Alisa Agozzino

Higher education institutions use a variety of methods to set themselves apart from other universities. In order to keep up with its key audiences, potential students, universities have begun to adapt to the shift in communication models by incorporating social media into the overall strategic plan. Specifically, colleges across the country are creating Facebook pages to engage with prospective or admitted students. Admissions officers now use Facebook to help students feel connected to the college and increase their likelihood to apply and enroll. The current study aims to determine how university admissions offices around the country are utilizing Facebook for recruitment purposes. A longitudinal study, currently in its fourth consecutive year, has surveyed over 1000 admissions professionals with additional data to be added next month at which time the data set will be complete. Results provide deeper insight into how Facebook has been used and adapted through an entire cohort of students. Key findings to date include a high usage of Facebook for recruitment (90%), increased use of different Facebook accounts within the same school based on student admissions status, decreased level of concern for privacy issues in recruiting through Facebook, and annual increases of institutions not allowing students to apply to college through Facebook. This study will not only fill a gap in the literature within the social media discipline and within the admissions field. It will also serve as a guide for best practices in Facebook use for recruitment in college admissions offices around the country.

Speakers
avatar for Alisa Agozzino

Alisa Agozzino

Assistant Professor of Public Relations, Ohio Northern University


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

! "A Spatiotemporal Model of Twitter Information Diffusion: An Example of Egyptian Revolution 2011"
Authors: K. Hazel Kwon, Haiyan Wang, Weiai Wayne Xu and Ross Raymond

Recent social movements demonstrate an important role of social media information diffusion in promoting social changes. Transnational information diffusion may be influenced by spatial proximity between the origin nation and other parts of the world. Proximity implies more than just physical distance. This paper develops a mathematical spatiotemporal diffusion model based on partial differential equations, called “diffusion-advection” model. The model is applied to four sets of global spatial arrangements, respectively based on geographical, ideological, economic and diaspora perspective on proximity. Twitter data on Egyptian Revolution 2011 is used for the model validation. The developed model shows an acceptable accuracy rate. Among the different definition of proximity, ideology-based arrangement (i.e., democracy) explained most effectively the spatial diffusion process over the course of the revolution, showing that different types of messages are diffused at a different pace.

Speakers
avatar for K. Hazel Kwon

K. Hazel Kwon

Assistant Professor, Arizona State University, United States of America
WX

Weiai Xu

University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
I am a PhD candidate in the field of Communication and Technology.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

"Facebook and the Future of Capture"
Author: Tero Karppi

Background: 
‘We prioritize product development investments that we believe will create engaging interactions between our users, developers and marketers,’ Facebook states in their Facebook 2012 Annual Report. 

Objective: 
In this paper I discuss Facebook’s different product developments as technologies of capture. I am interested in how Facebook’s product developments are seen to engage both the users and their actions in the various processes of value production on the platform. Some of these product developments are already in use such as the Like-button used to express a relation to particular content, some of them are in beta-test mode such as the Buy-button used to make online purchases, and some of them like the targeted advertising tool Atlas or the Facebook drone are ideas under development and merely reported by media outlets. 

Methods: 
This paper is conceptual; in other words the empirical cases are discussed in the context of media theory. I begin the paper by framing what I mean with user engagement (Cf. O’Brien & Toms 2008) and how it differs from more common concept of user participation. The key difference is that while user participation can be understood through the concept of interactivity, in the context of user engagement interactivity is always supplemented with interpassivity (Žižek 1998) a state where the human subject is more or less passive and the object is active, it has agency. Furthermore, I propose that Facebook’s ‘engaging interactions’ should be understood in the etymological sense of the word ‘engagement’ as a ‘security for payment’. In specific, I discuss Facebook’s engagement based business model (Cf. Jenkins et al. 2003) within the framework of affective capitalism (Parikka 2013). Following this position, Like-button, Buy-button, Atlas and the drone are technologies of capture that transform our relationships, location information and/or behavioral patterns into data that can be sold and exploited. 

Results: 
This paper discusses the ways in which Facebook aims at building future value through user engagement. User engagement becomes manifested in product developments which show how 1) user data is captured and exploited within the platform through social buttons 2) how facebook designs Atlas to gather data from outside the platform and targets offline purchases 3) how Facebook aims to capture the access to the internet with the drone and associated services such as the Facebook drone. 

Future Work: 
The future of Facebook is an under-researched area; this paper leads the way to explore its different possible material, ideological and cultural implications. 

References: 
Jenkins H., Ford S., and Green J. (2013) Spreadable Media. Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture. New York & London: New York University Press. 
O'Brien H., and Toms E. (2008) ‘What is User Engagement? A Conceptual Framework for Defining User Engagement with Technology.’ Journal of American Society for Information Science and Technology 59, no. 6: 938-955. 
Parikka, J. (2013) ‘Crowd, Power and Post-democracy in the 21st Century, Jussi Parikka's interview on digital populism and recent European political phenomena, held on 17th May 2013 with the author of Obsolete Capitalism.’ 
Zizek, S. (1998) ‘The Interpassive Subject.’ Centre Georges Pompidou Traverses. 

Speakers
TJ

Tero Jukka Karppi

University at Buffalo, United States of America


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

"Mobile news, social media news, and political participation in three Asian societies: An examination of direct and indirect effects using the O-S-R-O-R Model"
Authors: Michael ChanHsuan-Ting Chen and Francis Lee

Background: 
This comparative study examines the roles played by mobile phones and social media on offline and online political participation among college students in Hong Kong (partial democracy), Taiwan (young democracy), and China (one-party state). While very different politically, all three societies are characterized by the confluence of heavy mobile and social media use among the young, providing a form of “networked individualism” (Rainie & Wellman, 2012) that has demonstrated much potential for mobilizing collective actions and social change, such as the Sunflower Student Movement and Occupy Central movement in Taiwan and Hong Kong. This study adopts a theoretically-informed approach to examine the relationships.

Objective: 
Much political communication scholarship has focused on the “main effects” of information exposure (i.e. news) on democratic engagement. However, recent work suggests that the path from information to engagement is more nuanced (i.e. “indirect”) and involve several important cognitive and mental elaboration processes (Eveland, Jr. et al. 2003). More recently, Cho and colleagues (2009) proposed the O-S-R-O-R model, which integrates both mass and interpersonal communication processes, starting from socio-demographic characteristics (O) to news exposure (S) and then to mental elaboration processes (R). These in turn influence political attitudes (O) and subsequent behavior (R). Five years later, there has been scant research based on the model, especially in relation to Asian contexts and related to mobile/social media. This study fills such a gap, and it will test the model shown in Figure 1.

Methods: 
Data were gathered through self-administered questionnaires of college students systematically selected in Hong Kong, Taipei (Taiwan) and Guangzhou (China) during September to November, 2014. Classes were selected based on stratified random sampling at the university, faculty, and department levels. Surveys were distributed in class and yielded a sample of 897 respondents from China, 795 from Hong Kong, and 953 from Taiwan. 

Results: 
To examine the relationships structural equation modeling using the EQS 6 program (Bentler, 2004) was performed. A partial correlation matrix for the variables was first created to control for the effects of extraneous variables (gender, age, class, and political interest). Then the main variables were entered in accordance with the full O-S-R-O-R framework. Betas that were not statistically significant were removed. Final specified models indicated very good fit for the Hong Kong sample (figure 2), χ2 (14) = 14.71, p = .39; CFI = 1.00; TLI = .99; RMSEA = .001; SRMR = .002; Taiwan sample (figure 3), χ2 (14) = 21.31, p = .09; CFI = .99; TLI = .99; RMSEA = .002; SRMR = .002; and China sample (figure 4), , χ2(9) = 14.14, p = .12; CFI = .99; TLI = .98; RMSEA = .03; SRMR = .02.

Future Work: 
Some tentative conclusions can be made on these initial findings that are supportive of the O-S-R-O-R Model. While there are as expected certain idiosyncrasies among the samples, there are some consistent patterns that are indicative of common effects among the samples, such as the reinforcing roles of mobile and social media. I hope these findings can provide further room for discussion and reflection.

References:
Bentler, P. M. (2004). EQS 6 Structural Equations Program. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software, Inc.
Cho, J., Shah, D. V., McLeod, J. M., McLeod, D. M., Scholl, R. M., & Gotlieb, M. R. (2009). Campaigns, Reflection, and Deliberation: Advancing an O-S-R-O-R Model of Communication Effects. Communication theory, 19, 66-88.
Eveland, Jr. W. P., Shah, D. V., & Kwak, N. (2003). Assessing Causality in the Cognitive Mediation Model: A Panel Study of Motivations, Information Processing, and Learning During Campaign 2000. Communication Research, 30, 359-386.
Rainie, L., & Wellman, B. (2012). Networked: The New Social Operating System. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Speakers
avatar for Michael Chan

Michael Chan

Assistant Professor, Chinese University of Hong Kong


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

"Predicting Users’ Demographic Attributes from Browsing Data Analysis"
Authors: Yu-Chin Liu, In-Ya Lee and Yi-Hsuan Chiang

As the mobile devices prevail, people all over the wold spend more and more times on internet surfing. However, due to the anonymity in the internet world, business users are hard to identify the real demographic data from potential customers. For many companies, customers’ demographic data are essential to create product segmentations and new business lines. 
To identifying customers’ segmentations has been a crucial job in making corporations more competitive and profitable. From the perspective of e-commerce strategies, delivering right products to right customers are of no doubt the first priority especially in the advent of the rapid changing business world. Traditionally, targeting customers based on the demographic data is the most common approach; however the anonymity of internet surfing makes such tasks difficult to achieve since e-commerce not being done face-to-face. Fortunately, the digital world provides excellent platforms to collect users’ browsing behavior which is hard to be done before. Such collected data bring not only BIG DATA but also great business opportunities. 

One of the most Big data well-known applications is to analyze business data for having insights into customers’ world; however while every company sees the same analytics or applies the same data mining techniques; no extra benefits could be gained. Therefore, new data analyze methods and tools should be invented to slice and dice corporate competitive advantages. Hence, in order to research new analysis tools, in our work, methods to discover customers’ demographic data are devised to help practitioners making better product segmentations. 

Objective: 
The main goal that we would like to achieve is to build the classification models to predict anonymous browsers’ demographic attributes. As stated previously, such information are essential to perform market segmentations. Ultimately, we expect the research results would help business people grabbing great business opportunities of their own. 

Methods: 
There are 1582 panel members whose browsing behaviour is logged under their approval. The panelists are required to provide their accurate demographic data and then download and install the NetRover™ software to record their every on-line browsing track for one-month. The collected data are therefore used to research our proposed models. 
Three classification models are proposed to predict the demographic attributes. The first one is built based on the websites being visited. However, since getting focus on every single website results in too many inputs in building models, therefore the websites’ categories defined by the comScore company are substituted to be the input attributes. For every category in the comScore, we further divide them into three measures: width, length and depth. 
The second model is to use the frequency counts of every comScore category as well as other browsing style characteristics defined by our work to predict the demographic class. The browsing style characteristics consist of the average categories visited per session, the average web pages visited per category, the visiting counts of the general top 5 categories and the richness of all categories. 

The last but not least, we consider the categories visiting sequences between different demographic attribute values and then put the frequent sequences into the classification models as input attributes. 

Results: 
So far, we are now still working on predicting the “gender” label, the experimental results show the style characteristics one (2nd model) outperforms the categories (1st model) one and the categories (1st model) outperforms the sequences model (3rd model). 

Future Work: 
As the classification models to predict anonymous browsers’ demographic attributes being proposed, we would like to explore the new dimensions to segment and cluster customers based on the web-surfing behavior. Further, by using the segmentation and customer clusters, finding ways to place high RIO internet (mobile) advertisements also attract us. 


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

13:31

"What Should Count?: A Quantitative Approach to Scoping Rumors in Social Media"
Authors: Logan Walls, Jim Maddock, Kate Starbird and Emma Spiro

Social media are important for rapidly obtaining and disseminating information, particularly when information is time-sensitive and critical for decision making. However, as individuals try to make sense of information in non-routine situations, rumors and misinformation often proliferate, eroding users’ confidence in these platforms (Turner, 1994; Hill, 2012; Hiltz et al., 2014; Hughes & Palen, 2012). As such, empirical studies of rumoring on social media—and informal communication dynamics more generally—have become a highly relevant area of study. One challenge facing such work is determining a method of identifying relevant content (e.g. tweets, posts) within the larger social media stream. Our work directly addresses this problem, using unsupervised learning methods to augment qualitative approaches to define datasets of interest within a large corpus of text-based data.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 13:31 - 15:00
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:00

Coffee Break
Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:00 - 15:15
(7th Floor) TRS1-148 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:15

Session 6A: Communities 2
Moderators
avatar for Bree Mcewan

Bree Mcewan

Associate Professor, Western Illinois University
Researching intersection of interpersonal and computer-mediated communication. Would love to chat with people about measures (recently published Facebook Relational Maintenance Measure and have Affordances measure in the works) and linguistic analyses (working on some LIWC stuff) Also working on 2016-2017 sabbatical application and looking to spend it in Toronto so if you know of research/teaching/visiting scholar opportunities....

Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:15 - 16:45
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:15

Session 6B: Journalism and Identity
Moderators
avatar for Alicia Wanless

Alicia Wanless

Director of Communications, The SecDev Foundation
Alicia Wanless studies influence and propaganda in a digital age, applying her research to strategic communications campaigns. Alicia’s 15 years of professional experience cover a broad scope of skills that uniquely position her as a propagandist, including work as a security analyst and strategic communications architect. In addition to applied research, Alicia has created and delivered training on managing information in a digital age... Read More →

Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:15 - 16:45
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:15

Session 6C: Health & Wellness
Moderators
avatar for Ann Pegoraro

Ann Pegoraro

Associate Professor, Director - Institute for Sport Marketing, Laurentian University
If you are interested in social media research - let's talk!

Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:15 - 16:45
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

! "Get Off My Internets: The Audience Commodity and the Mommy Blog Backlash"
Author: Andrea Hunter

This article uses Dallas Smythe’s (1977; 1981) conception of the audience commodity, as well as more recent conceptions of the prosumer commodity (Fuchs 2012a, b; 2011), to examine the role of audiences in mommy blogging. The popularity of mommy blogging has rested on the idea that these blogs are publishing honest and intimate account of women’s lives. However, this paper argues that the move towards monetizing these blogs and the commodification of the audience is contributing to an online backlash. Using the site Get Off My Internets (GOMI) as a case study, this paper examines how blog readers are attuned to the fact that they are being commodified through these blogs, and are resistant to this move. At the same time, while GOMI exists as a place to critique what contributors see as the false sense of community and intimacy that mommy blogs are creating, they are in fact creating their own community that at times is a source of validation and mutual support for participants.

Speakers
avatar for Andrea Hunter

Andrea Hunter

Assistant Professor, Concorda University


Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

! "Tweeting Live Shows: A Content Analysis of Live-Tweets from Three Entertainment Programs"
Authors: Qihao Ji and Danyang Zhao

In this paper, we collected over 200 thousands live tweets sent during three live entertainment programs and content analyzed 4,400 of them. Our goal was to see whether (and if so, how) live-tweets vary across three mainstream entertainment television programs in terms of the tweets’ content. Results suggested that live-tweets, in general, reflect the natures of the program in many ways. Limitation and future studies were discussed.

Speakers
avatar for Qihao Ji

Qihao Ji

Florida State University


Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

"#therealme: digitally mediated gender subjectivities of young women, transgender, and non-binary young people through selfies"
Author: Katie Warfield

The selfie, or “photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically one taken with a Smartphone or webcam and uploaded to a social media website (Oxford 2013)”, is not an entirely novel phenomenon but rather marks a convergence of old and new technologies, which are resulting in lively scholarly debates over the ontological breadth of the phenomenon. Scholars interested in selfies are connecting interdisciplinary relationships as wide ranging as autobiography and dataveillance (Rettberg 2014), celebrity and identity (Marwick 2014; Senft 2014), sexuality and the body (Albury 2014; Tiidenberg 2015), and audience research and embodiment (Warfield 2014; Lasen 2009). 

Early mass media discourse of the phenomenon of selfies—apart from being deeply critical—was also analogous with the discourses on analogue photography and early digital and mobile photography (Kindberg 2005; Spasojevic at al.2005; Lasen 2006; Manovich 2013), which presented images as communicative and archival texts of what has happened (Lister 1995). The Microsoft-funded project by Tim Kindberg, Mirjana Spasojevic, Rowanne Fleck and Abigail Sellen examined and categorized a collection of camera phone images in order to produce a sort of typology of uses (Kindberg 2005). A similar project by Nancy Van House interviewed 44 university students about what images they took and why (Van House 2005). A textual conception of selfies is important and valid but to conceive of selfies only in this manner is reductionist, narrow and perpetuates the idea that digital images of bodies (especially those of women) continue to be simply 2-D flattened photocopies disconnected from the embodied subject of (who is also often at the same time the producer of) the image. (Del Busso, 2010; Warfield, 2014). 

Objective: 
The goal of this work is to advocate phenomenologicaly methods to study selfies, which beckons a widening of the research aperture to include not only analysis of the image content but analysis of the embodied digital subjectivities of the selfie producer (Csordas 1999; Lasen 2004; Sobchak 2004). By exploring the person producing the image, the place of production, as well as any potential emotional and bodily relationships users have to these new digitally-circulated images the discussion becomes not one just of what how audiences can read images, but how is a person’s digital subjectivity reflected, felt and experienced through and with online images. 

Methods: 
Phenomenological Interviews (young women COMPLETE; transgender and NB young people 
IN PROGRESS Spring/Summer 2015) 

Online survey with content analysis (young women COMPLETE; transgender and NB young people IN PROGRESS Spring/Summer 2015) 

Results: 
The results of this study indicate that according to an online questionnaire of 42 female avid-selfie takers, the subjectivities girls experience through the production of selfies parallels the multimodal format of the selfie itself: girls present themselves at once as if they were in a photo (the model), in a mirror (the #realme), and on a stage (the self-conscious thespian). The final section of the paper draws upon the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty to propose, polemically, that perhaps the way these plugged-in girls experience subjectivity is rather as subjectivities, which are multilayered, experiential, objectified, and subjectively embodied. Furthermore when young women “enact” their identities in-front of the camera they play with and among visual tropes and conventions of femininity. When transgender men and women enact in front of a camera, they also play and adopt tropes of both masculine and feminine conventions. 

More broadly I aim to suggest that because of the multiple subjectivities experienced in multimodal phenomenon of the selfie, future research on digital subjectivities also ought to also be multi-modal and interdisciplinary, consider embodiment and spatiality, gender norms and gender fluidity, and draw upon theory as wide reaching as cyberfeminist theory, gender theory, phenomenology, technology and internet studies, and visual culture theory. 

Future Work: 
Expanding into the intersections of gender, I’m interested in looking at a group of Muslim youth on selfie-taking practices. Same methods different cohort. 

References: 

Albury, Kath et al. (2013) Young people and sexting in Australia: Ethics, representation and the law. Online. Available at: http://www.cci.edu.au/node/1522 
Csordas, T. (1999). Embodiment and Cultural Phenomenology. In Weiss, G & Haber, F (Eds.), Perspectives on Embodiment: the intersections of nature and culture. London: Routledge. 
Del Busso. L.A. (2010). Moving beyond the surface: a post-structural phenomenology of young women’s embodied experiences in everyday life. Psychology & Sexuality, 4(1), 1-6. 
Kindberg, T. et al 2005. The Ubiquitous Camera: An In-Depth Study of Camera Phone Use. IEEE: 
Lasen, A. 2004. Affective technologies: emotions and mobile phones. Reciever, Vodaphone, 2004 
Manovich, L. 2013. Selfiecity Project. http://selfiecity.net/ 
Lister, Martin. 1995. The Photographic Image in Digital culture. London: Routledge. 
Livingstone, S. (1999). New Media, New Audiences? New Media Society, 1, 59 -66. 
Livingstone, S & Das, R (2009, September, 3-4) The end of audiences?: theoretical echoes of reception amidst the uncertainties of use. Paper presented at: Transforming Audiences, University of Westminster. 
Marwick, Alice and danah boyd. (2014). “Networked privacy: How teenagers negotiate context in social media.” New Media & Society 16(7): 1051-1067. 
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. (1962). Phenomenology of Perception. New York: Routledge. 
Meskimmon, Marsha. 1996. The Art of Reflection. New York: Columbia University Press.

Speakers
avatar for Katie Warfield

Katie Warfield

Faculty, Kwantlen Polytechnic University
Director of the Visual Media Workshop @KwantlenU | Lead researcher of Making Selfies/Making Self | Faculty, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Surrey BC | Katie Warfield is faculty in the Department of Journalism and Communication at Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Surrey BC. She is director of the Visual Media workshop and lead researcher for the Making Selfies/Making Self Research Project, which explores the production and curation of... Read More →


Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

"Assessing the use of provincial weather hashtags by members of the Canadian public"
Authors: Amber Silver and Jean Andrey

In the summer of 2013, Environment Canada adopted impact statements and call-to-action statements in their weather products, including special weather statements and weather watches/warnings. As part of these updated warning products, Environment Canada asks citizens to share information on severe weather through e-mail or by Twitter with the use of provincial weather hashtags (e.g., #ONstorm, #ABstorm, #SKstorm). 

Objective: 

To examine how provincial hashtags are being used to share information, by whom, and whether this usage is a reliable indicator of public attention to severe weather. 

Methods: 

All tweets containing provincial weather hashtags were gathered from 8 July 2014 to 7 October 2014 (n=110,950) using Zapier, a web-based application automation service. Sample characteristics, including total number of tweets, retweets, and users, were determined for each province. Users were then classified as either ‘regular users or ‘high volume users’, based on the number of tweets they contributed during the study period. Next, all weather watches and weather warnings for Ontario (n=1008) were obtained from Environment Canada. A linear regression was conducted using the total number of tweets (including original tweets and retweets) and the number of weather watches/warnings per day for the study period. 

Results: 

A total of 33,555 users contributed 110,950 tweets during the study period. Of these tweets, 38,418 were original tweets and 72,532 were retweets. High volume users accounted for only 4.1% of the total sample, yet contributed 58.5% of the total tweets. This disproportionately high amount of activity was unexpected, and merited deeper investigation into the characteristics of regular users versus high volume users. Based on qualitative coding of users’ Twitter profiles, it was determined that the majority of high volume users were professionals, including meteorologists, media outlets, and weather-related professionals, whereas the majority of regular users were individuals. 

The results of the linear regressions between total number of tweets and weather watches/warnings were similarly surprising. Previous research suggests that the number of tweets is associated with the issuance of weather watches and weather(Ripberger, Jenkins-Smith, Silva, Carlson, & Henderson, 2014). However, the association between the variables in this present study was weak with weather warnings (R2=0.17, p-value = 0.00) slightly more closely associated with tweets than weather watches (R2=0.04, p-value = 0.05). Taken together, the results of this research suggest that high volume users of provincial hashtags tend to be weather professionals who discuss upcoming severe weather independently of Environment Canada’s official watches and warnings. This raises questions about the extent that Twitter activity is indicative of public attention (versus ‘professional’ attention) to severe weather. 

Future Work: 

The next steps are to assess how the findings of this research relate to weather-related tweets published without provincial weather hashtags. To do so, all tweets from a future severe weather event will be pulled using weather keywords (e.g., tornado, city_name, storm). Then, similar analysis will be conducted on this broader tweet-stream to explore questions relating to public versus professional attention to severe weather. 

References: 

Ripberger, J. T., Jenkins-Smith, H. C., Silva, C. L., Carlson, D. E., & Henderson, M. (2014). Social Media and Severe Weather: Do Tweets Provide a Valid Indicator of Public Attention to Severe Weather Risk Communication? Weather, Climate, and Society, 6(4), 520–530. 

Speakers
avatar for Amber Silver

Amber Silver

Doctoral candidate, University of Waterloo
Amber is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Geography at the University of Waterloo. Her main research interests involve risk communication strategies to encourage protective action during short notice severe weather.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

"Social Media and Cyberbullying: Not Just a Dangerous Tool for Teens"
Author: Mylynn Felt

Joel Best (2008) outlines a natural progression of social problem construction. The six stages of this model include the following: claims making, media coverage, public reaction, policymaking, social problems work, and, finally, policy outcomes. Following several high-profile teen suicides linked to electronically-mediated harassment, cyberbullying has recently emerged as a Canadian social problem. This process began with claims from the victims and their families which led to mass media coverage. With a high level of ongoing public attention, at least nine provinces have passed legislation and the federal government just passed the Protecting Canadians from Online Crime Act in response. 

Objective: As cyberbullying moves through the process of social problems construction, I seek to analyze how claims makers forward and legitimate their concerns in a manner that leads to policy change. 

Methods: I applied frame theory to a content analysis of Canadian print news coverage of the deaths of Jamie Hubley, Amanda Todd, Rehtaeh Parsons, and Todd Loik. This included eight categories: remedies of cyberbullying, effects of cyberbullying, definitions of cyberbullying, moral judgments of cyberbullying, blame for the death of the teen, establishing a pattern of cyberbullying, causes of cyberbullying, and defensive claims. 

Results: Results show that print news frames cyberbullying as a social problem in the mediated public discourse of these teen suicides. The most prevalent category of analysis was remedies, and the most commonly suggested remedy was public attention. This attention comes in the form of mass media and social media; however, most coverage emphasizes social media. While teen use of social media is heavily associated with cyberbullying, tools such as YouTube, Facebook, and blogs are cited as the means used by these teens and their parents to bring awareness to the persecution they each faced prior to their deaths. Without the use of these tools, their claims would likely never have achieved the public attention necessary for society to recognize a social problem let alone to see the policy changes that have resulted. 

Future Work: It is clear that social media can be used by claims makers to draw attention to cyberbullying as a social problem. The next stage of research should focus on how social media users utilize these tools to forward social problem claims and to counter them. Only when cyberbullying is seen as socially unacceptable will society see a noticeable reduction in prevalence. The communications tools used to deliver messages of hate can also be utilized to alter what forms of communication are seen as socially acceptable. 

Speakers

Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(8th Floor) TRS 2-166 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

! "Sourcing and Trust: Twitter Journalism in Ireland"
Authors: Bahareh Rahmanzadeh Heravi and Natalie Harrower

Social media, and in particular Twitter, have been widely adopted into newsrooms, with journalists using social media to source leads and content, disseminate stories, solicit user comments and drive traffic to their websites. Traditional journalistic practices generally rely on ‘official’ sources for gathering and verifying information, but with the constant flow of breaking news and content on social media, this practice has been widened to include more diverse sources. However, social media content is ‘noisy’ and its provenance and authenticity are not always easy to determine. This paper investigates the ways in which journalists use social media for sourcing and verification, and their attitudes towards social media in terms of trust. The analysis is built on a survey of journalists in Ireland conducted in 2013, which revealed that journalists in Ireland are heavy adopters of Twitter in their workflows, and in particular use social media for sourcing news leads and content. However, they are highly skeptical about the level of trust in social media. While this paper focuses on journalists in Ireland, the analysis of the relationship between trust, sourcing and verification reveals broader patterns about journalistic values, and how these values and practices operate in the new media landscape. 

Speakers
avatar for Natalie Harrower

Natalie Harrower

Director (Acting), Digital Repository of Ireland
Natalie Harrower is the Acting Director of the Digital Repository of Ireland, a trusted repository for Ireland's social sciences and humanities data. At the DRI, she is involved in several projects, the most relevant of which is The Social Repository of Ireland - a feasibility study into archiving event-based social media for long term preservation and reuse.
avatar for Bahareh R. Heravi

Bahareh R. Heravi

Research Group Leader, Insight News Lab, Insight Centre for Data Analytics, NUI Galway
Bahareh Heravi is a Research Fellow at Insight Centre for Data Analytics at NUI Galway (former DERI) and the head of Insight News Lab. Her research is focused on the nexus of data, technology and journalism. She is a pioneer of Data and Computational Journalism in Ireland. | Bahareh is the founder of Irish Times Data and Hacks/Hackers Dublin.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

"Operationalizing Current Events in the Age of Social Media: An Exploratory Study on 18-24 Year-Olds’ Consumption of Current Events on Social Media"
Author: Jack Karlis


Social media is a dominant news source among the college-age demographic (18-24). Inherent in news consumption on social media is current events, that is, news that has individual relevance, societal relevance and is time constrained. This study adds to the existing body of current events literature by providing an operational definition of current events and its resulting consumption patterns. This study is the first of its kind, examining 18-24 year-olds’ use current events on social media. Through a pen-and-paper survey, data was collected to examine the different dimensions of news to the demographic. Using a survey of 896 college students using current events on social media, Twenty-two different dimensions of current events were found (sports, entertainment, local, pop culture, political, campus, weather, celebrity, national, lifestyle, crime, hometown, other, health, education, international, business, culture and the arts, science and technology, consumer, religious and legal). This study also found that a current event is only relevant to the news consumer until he or she stops seeing it or hearing about it. 

Speakers

Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

"The effect of social media on frame building: studies of journalistic practices"
Authors: Juana Du and Hongzhong Zhang

Framing has grown into a thriving approach to control the way journalists frame issues and events. Research on framing journalism is less well developed. In particular, journalists’ contributions to frame building in the news deserve further analysis, as framing journalism provides an essential basis for the ethical practice of journalism in a global media era (China Media Research. 2013; 9(2): 71-82). 

This study discusses how social media impacts journalistic framing practices. In particular, it examines the effects of usage of social media on both social and professional routines of journalists and how social media would impact journalists to frame their reports. This study extends current framing research to journalistic practices, which is an area hasn’t been sufficiently explored ((Scheufele & Scheufele, 2010). It provides first-hand empirical data to study news framing of journalists in Chinese cultural context. 

This study is based on a survey of journalists working for media in China. In total, 818 questionnaires were collected. A stratified sampling is adopted and the journalists participated in this survey came from seven cities from 4 provinces and 3 municipals directly under the central government. These cities including: Beijing, Chongqing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Fuzhou, Chengdu and Nanjing. These cities covered North, Northeast, Central, West and Southwest China. Journalists working with both daily reports and evening reports are chosen from each city. The data collection started from June to July 2014. 

Using SPSS to conduct MANOVA analysis examining professional media usage and social media usage as covariates, news framing strategies (positive, negative or ambiguous) as dependant variables, 
it showed a significant multivariate effect for news framing strategies as a group in relation to social media usage (p<.01) and professional media usage (p<.01). Univariate analyses for the effect of professional media usage significant predicted responses related to news framing strategies (p<.001), with responses significantly more positive for positive strategies than negative strategies and ambiguous strategies; Univariate analyses for the effect of social media usage significant predicted responses related to news framing strategies (p<.01), with responses significantly more positive for positive strategies and ambiguous strategies than negative strategies. However, it found no significant association between media usage as a group and need for journalists (need for evaluation vs. need for cognition). Findings also revealed significant associations between media framing strategies and years of working in current years, while no significant associations tested between media framing strategies and other independent variables including the age of journalist, education background, overseas working experiences and types of media. These findings suggest that the usage of social media and professional media in journalistic framing deserves more research attention. The results also have implications for journalism practitioners. 

Speakers
JD

Juana Du

Assistant Professor, RRU
HZ

Hongzhong Zhang

Beijing Normal University China


Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

"The Never-Ending Story: Snapchat Storytelling Techniques Among News Organizations"
Author: Shauna Rempel

Snapchat has changed enormously since it launched in September 2011, evolving from a platform to share time-sensitive, self-deleting private messages to a place for news organizations to reach a young, highly engaged audience. With the launch of Snapchat Discover in January 2015, the app’s estimated nearly 200 million active users (Shontell, 2015) now have two ways to consume news content — through 12 major media partners in the Discover feature and via photo and video updates (collectively known as “snaps”) posted to the public “Stories” area by account holders in the main app (Team Snapchat, 2013). But either way, the news is inherently ephemeral, lasting a maximum of 24 hours — “because what’s news today is history tomorrow” (Team Snapchat, 2015). This work-in-progress paper will describe the range of techniques being used by specialty and mainstream news organizations to tell stories within the parameters of the main app. As social media strategist for Global News, the author has first-hand experience running the globalnews1 Snapchat account. Drawing from this experience, commonly accepted practices and processes will be described. News organizations such as Global News employ several storytelling techniques within the main app to engage Snapchat users, including but not limited to: video interviews, selfies, real-time raw videos, polls, behind-the-scenes images, and “takeovers” in which a reporter shares his or her daily routine. Sometimes these snaps are standalone vignettes; other times they are meant to be viewed consecutively as part of an unfolding theme. 
In addition, the paper will include interviews with journalists at several U.S. news organizations who work in Snapchat. 

Sam Sheffer, the journalist who runs the Snapchat account for technology website theverge.com, spoke of the need for consistent updates posted to therealverge’s “Story” throughout the day so that it essentially never ends (S. Sheffer, personal communication, March 24, 2015). Rolando Pujol, the social media editor behind the Snapchat account for New York TV news station PIX11, described the storytelling strategy for the pix11news account as a “rolling narrative” (R. Pujol, personal communication, March 25, 2015). The author’s own experience at Global News backs up that editorial need for a never-ending story, built one snap at a time. 

Speakers

Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

"The online identity of the Lebanese journalists: Private self/Public self" [CANCELLED]
Author: Mirna Abou Zeid

Journalism has always been a profession who requires good contacts. For a journalist a wide network of contacts means a variety of sources and a multitude of stories. So the bigger his network is, the better it is for a journalist to succeed and access a leading position. Journalism is a profession of networking also and mostly because it is a profession of broadcasting and the bigger its audience is, the better it is for a news organization. The same principle applies for individual journalists, especially for the leading figures whom are considered by the public as opinion leaders. With the social media expanding, journalism is experiencing major changes and is becoming more challenging. 

Social Media have enormously amplified each and everyone’s connecting and networking opportunities. We live in an increasing networked society that affect people’s lives in different ways. Understanding the implication of social network platforms involves analyzing the behaviors of their users: why and how do they use these networks, what kind of relations they engage over social networks, and what data they exchange with their connections. Social networks, such as Facebook, Twitter or Instagram… satisfy in some way each person’s desire for recognition and fame. They give everyone her or his quarter hour of celebrity and a flattering sense of admiration leading to a growing aspiration for exposure. The opposite side is the interference between the private life and the public, exposed life. In some intellectual and academic circles, privacy is considered as the most challenging impact of the e-existence. In this over connected society, where stands the boundary between the private self and the public self? 

Another critical issue of the e-being is the matching between the real self and the e-self. The social networks, giving anonymous people the ability to rapidly become renowned, amassing “likers” and “followers” for any reason, establish a new form of leadership. The utopia of this new connected era, proclaiming a new world where no borders stand between peoples and cultures, where no dictators can mislead their people, where no crucial information can be held from public, where new community leadership can rise and stand for people’s right were boosted by the Arab spring. Ordinary individuals with no previous civic nor political engagement, like Waël Ghoneim became public leading figures of the “Facebook revolution”. 
These challenging implications of the social media involve journalists’ use of the social networks either in a private or a professional way. Journalists, as public figures, have experienced an exponential rise of their celebrity over the social networks, as people tend to connect with them and therefore count these renowned people as “friends”. This leads to ask if journalists are using their networking assets to develop a leadership. Journalists are by definition engaged in social and political change, are the social network platforms enabling them to encounter their employing organizations policies and engage in a more personal way, political and social issues and thus shaping public opinion tendency? In other words are journalists playing the role of opinion leaders? 

This research project intends to study how the Lebanese journalists use the social media in particular Facebook and Twitter. A quantitative study will be conducted among the news organizations employed journalists to identify their different practices between personal and professional. In parallel a qualitative study will consider a representative sample of prominent journalists, including senior reporters, main anchors, and chief editors… from various media outlets to analyze their online identities: their profiles, their followers, and the data they exchange… This analysis shall be completed by in depth interviews with these journalists to apprehend their understanding of their social networks practices and their impact over their profession. These facts will help appreciate the implications of the social media on the news production and transmission, and answer the above questions concerning journalists and leadership, and the distinction between the private self and the public self of journalists on the social networks. 

Speakers

Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(7th Floor) Room TRS1-129 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

! "A Study of Tweet Chats for Breast Cancer Patients"
Authors: Kunal Singh and Ajita John

One of the oldest patient communities on Twitter is characterized by the hashtag #bcsm, and it is a forum for breast cancer patients and survivors. This community has been hosting a weekly, moderated chat for the last three years. This paper describes work that analyzes the content of these chats and explores their effectiveness for the patients. The computational analysis compares the engagement, linguistic, and psychological facets of patients while tweeting during the chats and while tweeting out of the chats, and shows that there is a significant difference in behavior by the patients in the two modes. The result shows the effectiveness of social media chats for cancer patients for the purposes of information exchange and support.


Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

! "Happy online and in real life too? How social media interactions affect real life well-being of students in US and Germany"
Authors: Anne Suphan and Bozena Mierzejewska

Research examining the impact of social media use on well-being of digital natives has given a myriad of opposing outcomes indicating both positive and negative effects. In this paper we examine whether there is still a boundary between interpersonal online and offline sphere in the cohort of student digital natives and how does it differ between German student populations and US. From data collected in 2013 and 2014 we find that involvement in SNS results more in positive emotional outcomes than in negative ones. Secondly, we conclude that there is no significant impact of SNS interactions on real life activities. We explain this striking result focusing on separation of communication activities in on-line and off-line life contexts. We also report on differences between US and German students. The results of our study show that German students tend to separate stronger between online and offline sphere.

Speakers
avatar for Bozena Mierzejewska

Bozena Mierzejewska

Fordham University
Host & Co-Organizer of WMEMC 2016Bozena Mierzejewska is an Assistant Professor of Communication and Media Management at the Gabelli School of Business, Fordham University, New York. She is the editor of JMM – The International Journal on Media Management and member of the editorial boards of several academic journals. Her research and teaching focus on media management and digitisation and its impact on media organizations and media workers... Read More →
avatar for Anne Suphan

Anne Suphan

Postdoc, University of Hohenheim


Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

"Detecting Measures for Community Wellbeing on Social Media"
Author: Ziad Matni

Information about our local environment is everywhere on the Internet and other information and communication technologies (ICT), especially in certain forms of social media. Our engagement and interaction with this information in our daily social lives, as individuals and groups, has grown tremendously in the past decade and continues to do so. Social awareness streams (SAS) encompass “real-time” information streams generated by Internet services like Twitter, Facebook, FourSquare, and Flickr, and are at the forefront of changing the framework of how our society utilizes information. SAS are used by many millions of people on a daily basis to help them stay connected by communicating via brief messages, typically in public or semi-public forums. These real-time technologies also yield very large amounts of data from, and about, the people communicating and their communities, both virtual (Gruzd et al., 2011) and geographically-localized (Schwartz et al., 2013). But looking beyond events being detected, how can we gauge from the data how well individuals and groups of community-based individuals are doing when something disruptive occurs in their lives? 

I want to find reliable measures of community wellbeing by looking at data in user-generated informational technologies, like SAS (or in other instances, like in personally-carried monitoring devices like smart phones, health monitors or other wearable computing devices)? There are many aspects to what might be termed “community wellbeing” – its measure of civic unrest, the health of its aggregate population, the financial stability or wealth of its aggregate population, the level of education of its population, etc… I propose to detect some of these aspects in SAS data and show that when these wellbeing measures are low, we begin to see signs of stress and anxiety on individual and community bases. Likewise, when these measures are high, we see what I term as “tranquility” of individuals and community groups. The tranquility of a community is important for community leaders looking to assuage possible concerns from the citizenry about abnormal health and/or safety events concerns that can arise from wide-spread anxiety. This anxiety can be due to health epidemics, a rise in police or fire fighter activity, natural disaster occurrences and their aftermaths, or extreme weather occurrences – in short, anything that might disrupt the lives of people’s daily lives. 
Based on these initial findings, I would like to extend this research to include looking at ways to see if we can influence individuals and groups to change or modify their behavior on the basis of this data and information we might gleam from their social networks. Once data is aggregated and analyzed, what manner of feedback via the social network might prove to be the most effective and why? The motivation is to better understand how influences through social networks can help ease or moderate the level of anxiety that people and groups of people are feeling vis-à-vis their community. Likewise, this might help us better understand if this feedback mechanism can be used effectively to agitate communities in order to give rise to community activism (e.g. get people more motivated about community-level causes/perceived threats or even global ones, like climate change)? 

I propose to study this through content analysis of collected data from SAS. Collecting geo-located data from individuals in localized communities is relatively straight-forward, as established in various other studies and demonstrations (Schwartz et al., 2013; Matni et al., 2014). The research would then necessitate some content analysis and coding of the data – or at least a randomized portion of the data – to reveal keyword use in messages that mention something about community wellbeing or aspects of community wellbeing (such as mentions of civic unrest, increased police or fire-fighter activity, health contagions like colds, announcements of new jobs, or those lost, and so on). The content analysis should additionally look at how these detected messages talk about events that bring about either an anxious or tranquil state-of-mind of the messenger. Part of this includes an investigation of how often these keywords are used during community wellbeing-related messages and if their use has predictive value. Finally, the analysis should show if certain proposed aspects of community wellbeing are more influential and more commonly mentioned than others, giving us a sense of how to best construct a definition of “community wellbeing” as reflected in SAS. 
For the second part of my study (which seems contingent on the results of the first part), I would use methodologies that could include examining the extracted social networks of the SAS users, if made available, or alternatively the exercise of a simulation of different social network structures, as inspired by the study by Suri and Watts (2011) that looked at cooperation and contagion for public goods in social networks. 

Speakers
avatar for Ziad Matni

Ziad Matni

PhD Candidate, Rutgers University
My research on information behavior in social media. And how to make a killer margarita!


Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

"Health Literacy on Social Media: Fantasy Theme Analysis of Health Advertorials in Chinese WeChat"
Authors: Mei Wu and Peiyuan Lin

WeChat, the most popular mobile application in China, plays an increasing role as an information source in everyday lives of hundreds of millions of Chinese. It is a hotbed for information marketing in the form of advertorials. This study sets an inquiry of a special type of advertorials, namely “Yang Sheng advertorials” which are soft advertising articles packaged in the rhetoric of Chinese way of keeping health. “Yang Sheng” (Chinese pinyin: yang sheng, direct translation: keeping a life), is the unique health concept similar to health preservation and disease cure. It is one of the most circulated types of information shared in the Chinese social media. 

This study attempts to identify the symbolic reality shared by Chinese social media users in understanding the “Yang Sheng advertorials” through the application of the Symbolic Convergence Theory (SCT) and Fantasy Theme Analysis (FTA). It first examines fantasy themes, fantasy types and rhetoric visions embodied in the “Yang Sheng advertorials” which are mostly marketed in the public accounts of WeChat. Second, it analyzes how these fantasies are shared by young WeChat users through two focus group interviews of university students. Based on the findings, the paper further elaborates how the sharing of health information is rooted deeply in the traditional Chinese health philosophy of keeping a balance “yin” and “yang” forces within the individual body and how this health literacy is mixed with the modern knowledge of medical science and technology, health preservation and disease treatment. The role of social media in fantasizing the health and body is also analyzed. 


Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3

15:16

"Social Media in Health: The Australian Paradigm"
Authors: Dr. Chandana Unnithan and Paula Swatman

Background: 
Social media is touted as an enabler for access to the ageing population, to those living in remote locations ; and to smartphone users. Australians are ardent users of social media and this would seem to offer an excellent opportunity to extend the reach of medical care in a very effective way.
 
Objective: 
The potential for both benefit and risk to public health offered by social media formed the basis for this investigation. We sought to identify how social media can be utilised by health professionals and health consumers, within existing regulatory frameworks, in Australia.

Methods: 
We have undertaken an exploratory investigation using content analysis on extant literature. Social media was studied from the perspective of health consumers, health professionals and regulatory frameworks. We also explored the linkages between policies and privacy law that impacts social media usage.
Results: 

In this preliminary review, we identified a need for simplification of the existing regulatory frameworks, together with greater e-health literacy amongst consumers, before the power of social media tools can be leveraged safely to enhance the quality of public health in Australia.

Future Work: 
We propose to undertake in-depth investigation using qualitative methods: focus groups, case studies and application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) and Actor-Network theory (ANT) in this area. The continuing in-depth studies and results would be of benefit to other countries that envisage leveraging social media in public health practices.

Speakers
PM

Paula M.C. Swatman

Adjunct Professor of Information Systems, University of Tasmania
avatar for Dr. Chandana Unnithan

Dr. Chandana Unnithan

Faculty - Information Systems, Victoria University
I am a faculty member in the field of Information Systems Management with Victoria University, Australia (and also teach at Charles Darwin University). I teach IT Project management, Enterprise Business Applications, and Professional Practice. My current research focus is on social media analytics; Web 2.0 & 3.0; and women in ICT. I am an active part of the Action Team 6 Follow up Initiative, which aims to use spatial technologies for public... Read More →


Wednesday July 29, 2015 15:16 - 16:45
(9th Floor) TRS 3-176 (Ted Rogers School of Management) 55 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON M5G 2C3